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J Clin Invest. 1987 April; 79(4): 1062–1069.
PMCID: PMC424284

Differential effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia on leucine-carbon metabolism in vivo. Evidence for distinct mechanisms in regulation of net amino acid deposition.

Abstract

The effects of physiologic hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia, alone or in combination, on leucine kinetics in vivo were studied in postabsorptive healthy subjects with primed-constant infusions of L-[4,5-3H]leucine and [1-14C]alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) under euglycemic conditions. Hyperinsulinemia (approximately 100 microU/ml) decreased (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline) steady state Leucine + KIC rates of appearance (Ra) from proteolysis, KIC (approximately leucine-carbon) oxidation, and nonoxidized leucine-carbon flux (leucine----protein). Hyperaminoacidemia (plasma leucine, 210 mumol/liter), with either basal hormone replacement or combined to hyperinsulinemia, resulted in comparable increases in leucine + KIC Ra, KIC oxidation, and leucine----protein (P less than 0.05 vs. baseline). However, endogenous leucine + KIC Ra was suppressed only with the combined infusion. Therefore, on the basis of leucine kinetic data, hyperinsulinemia and hyperaminoacidemia stimulated net protein anabolism in vivo by different mechanisms. Hyperinsulinemia decreased proteolysis but did not stimulate leucine----protein. Hyperaminoacidemia per se stimulated leucine----protein but did not suppress endogenous proteolysis. When combined, they had a cumulative effect on net leucine deposition into body protein.

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