Simian and human sera were examined for neutralizing antibodies to simian and human cytomegaloviruses (CMV). Neutralizing antibody to simian CMV was found in sera from 12 of 12 African green monkeys, 8 of 10 rhesus monkeys, and 7 of 7 baboons captured in the wild. The antibody did not cross-react with human CMV strain AD169 but cross-reacted with human strain C87, particularly in the presence of complement. Thirty-six baboons and 10 rhesus monkeys born and hand-reared in captivity remained free of neutralizing antibody both to simian and human CMV for as long as 4 years. Fifteen of 24 human sera (63%) revealed only species-specific neutralizing antibody.