Guinea pigs were inoculated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever by the aerosol, conjunctival, subcutaneous, intragastric, and intranasal routes. Rickettsial infection was produced by all routes except intragastric. All animals with clinical signs of disease developed agglutinating antibody, and most developed a cell-mediated immune response. Disease produced by all experimental routes (except intragastric) was indistinguishable. The tissue culture-derived inactivated vaccine produced in this laboratory protected guinea pigs against an aerosol challenge.