PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of bmjLink to Publisher's site
 
BMJ. 2004 May 1; 328(7447): 1028–1029.
PMCID: PMC403831

Raised cardiac troponins

Causes extend beyond acute coronary syndromes
Peter Ammann, senior physician
(peter.ammann/at/kssg.ch)
Matthias Pfisterer, professor
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland
Thomas Fehr, research fellow
Transplantation Biology Research Center Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Boston, MA 02129, USA (thomas.fehr/at/verizon.net)
Hans Rickli, senior physician

Cardiac troponins are regulatory proteins of the thin actin filaments of the cardiac muscle. Troponin T and troponin I are highly sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. Serial measurement of troponin I or troponin T has become an important tool for risk stratification of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. The joint committee of the European Society of Cardiology, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association has recently accepted their measurement in serum as the standard biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and for diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes.1,2 Cardiac troponins, however, are raised in many patients presenting with conditions other than acute coronary syndromes (box). To ignore this fact will lead to unjustified, potentially harmful investigations and increases medical costs. In sepsis, for example, cardiac troponins are raised in up to 85% of patients in the absence of any acute coronary syndromes.3 Doctors need to be aware that troponins are biochemical markers that replace neither electrocardiograms nor clinical investigation.

In the setting of an acute coronary syndrome raised cardiac troponins identify patients with a risk of death that is several times higher than in patients without troponin elevation in the subsequent weeks.4 In addition, cardiac troponins have also been reported to predict mortality in heart failure, sepsis, renal failure, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and in critically ill patients without coronary artery disease.

Cardiac troponins are detected in serum or heparin plasma by using monoclonal antibodies against several different epitopes of the troponin T or I molecule. These antibodies have negligible cross reactivity to skeletal muscle.5 Cardiac troponins I and T start to rise within 3-4 hours after myocardial infarction and remain raised for 4-10 days because of a gradual degeneration of myofibrils with release of the troponin complex.6,7

Several manufacturers offer different immunological tests with different cut-off values and different sensitivities for the detection of troponins. In contrast to the different assays of troponin I, which are not standardised, troponin T is assessed by using a single assay. Therefore, the results are directly comparable between different laboratories over the world. The new third generation troponin T test has a clinically relevant cut-off point (upper limit of normal) of about 0.1 μg/l and a 95% sensitivity for the detection above 0.01 μg/l.5 Newer tests for troponin I show cut-off points between 0.1 μg/l and 2 μg/l, with a detection level around 0.007 μg/l.8 Nevertheless, for all biochemical tests doctors should evaluate cut-off levels provided by the manufacturers in their own population of patients.

Several mechanisms leading to raised troponins are assumed: the best known reason is myocardial ischaemia in the setting of acute coronary syndromes or myocardial infarction.9 However, recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction after troponin positive sepsis, septic shock, or myocarditis shows that other mechanisms for raised troponins may be relevant, too. One may be leaking of cardiac troponins from myocyte cell membranes. Tumour necrosis factor α has been shown to increase the permeability of endothelial monolayers to macromolecules and lower weight solutes.10 Permeability may change similarly at the level of myocyte cell membranes, leading to leakage of cardiac troponins. Experimental evidence for this hypothesis was provided by Piper et al,11 who showed reversible membranous bleb formation in rat cardiomyocytes during limited periods of hypoxia and a consecutive release of myocardial enzymes in cell supernatant. In rat cardiomyocytes, only 15 minutes of mild ischaemia have been shown to be enough to cause the release of troponin I, an interval too short to induce cell death.12

Conditions associated with raised cardiac troponins (analytical causes excluded)

Cardiac diseases and interventions

Cardiac amyloidosisw1

Cardiac contusionw2

Cardiac surgery w3 w4

Cardioversion and implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks w5 w6

Closure of atrial septal defectsw7

Coronary vasospasmw8

Dilated cardiomyopathyw9

Heart failurew10 w11

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathyw12

Myocarditisw13-15

Percutaneous coronary interventionw16 w17

Post cardiac transplantationw18

Radiofrequency ablationw19-21

Supraventricular tachycardiaw22

Non-cardiac diseases

Critically ill patientsw23 w24

High dose chemotherapyw25 w26

Primary pulmonary hypertensionw27

Pulmonary embolismw28 w29

Renal failurew30-36

Subarachnoid haemorrhagew37 w38

Scorpion envenomingw39

Sepsis and septic shockw40-42

Strokew43 w4

Ultra-endurance exercise (marathon)w45-47

A further mechanism for a rise in troponins may be related to coagulation in the capillary bed during sepsis, leading to reversible myocardial hypoxia and apoptosis associated with leakage of cardiac troponins into the serum. However, experimental evidence proving this hypothesis does not exist to date.

The most important question is not whether diseases presented in the box represent myocardial damage or not but rather whether raised troponins reflect reversible or irreversible myocardial injury and how necrosis could be distinguished from reversible myocardial damage. Further experimental studies are required to clarify this point, which has in recent years been considered in numerous clinical studies that showed that raised troponins are predictors for mortality or worse clinical outcome independently of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction.w1 w9 w23 w24 w27 w28 w31 w35 w41 w43 However, raised cardiac troponins alone will never allow us to make a clinical diagnosis, but they are an important contribution to a complex clinical picture, be it in the context of acute coronary syndromes or other conditions. Above all they contain prognostic information for most of these conditions that may be relevant for the management of patients

Supplementary Material

Additional references:

Notes

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is webplus.f1.gifAdditional references w1-w47 are on bmj.com

Competing interests: None declared.

References

1. Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW, Califf RM, Cheitlin MD, Hochman JS, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: executive summary and recommendations. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines (committee on the management of patients with unstable angina). Circulation 2000;102: 1193-209. [PubMed]
2. Myocardial infarction redefined—a consensus document of the Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology committee for the redefinition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36: 959-69. [PubMed]
3. Ammann P, Fehr T, Minder EI, Gunter C, Bertel O. Elevation of troponin I in sepsis and septic shock. Intensive Care Med 2001;27: 965-9. [PubMed]
4. Heidenreich PA, Alloggiamento T, Melsop K, McDonald KM, Go AS, Hlatky MA. The prognostic value of troponin in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38: 478-85. [PubMed]
5. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Ball D, Collinson P, et al. The cardiospecificity of the third-generation troponin T assay after exercise-induced muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34: 651-4. [PubMed]
6. Tucker JF, Collins RA, Anderson AJ, Hauser J, Kalas J, Apple FS. Early diagnostic efficiency of cardiac troponin I and Troponin T for acute myocardial infarction. Acad Emerg Med 1997;4: 13-21. [PubMed]
7. Bertinchant JP, Larue C, Pernel I, Ledermann B, Fabbro-Peray P, Beck L, et al. Release kinetics of serum cardiac troponin I in ischemic myocardial injury. Clin Biochem 1996;29: 587-94. [PubMed]
8. Christenson RH, Apple FS, Morgan DL, Alonsozana GL, Mascotti K, Olson M, et al. Cardiac troponin I measurement with the ACCESS immunoassay system: analytical and clinical performance characteristics. Clin Chem 1998;44: 52-60. [PubMed]
9. Hamm CW. New serum markers for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1994;331: 607-8. [PubMed]
10. Brett J, Gerlach H, Nawroth P, Steinberg S, Godman G, Stern D. Tumor necrosis factor/cachectin increases permeability of endothelial cell monolayers by a mechanism involving regulatory G proteins. J Exp Med 1989;169: 1977-91. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Piper HM, Schwartz P, Spahr R, Hütter JF, Spieckermann PG. Early enzyme release from myocardial cells is not due to irreversible cell damage. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1984;16: 385-8. [PubMed]
12. McDonough JL, Arrell DK, Van Eyk JE. Troponin I degradation and covalent complex formation accompanies myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circ Res 1999;84: 9-20. [PubMed]

Articles from BMJ : British Medical Journal are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group