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Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2013; 13(24): 1–24.
Published online 2013 November 1.
PMCID: PMC3874775

Vitamin B12 Intramuscular Injections Versus Oral Supplements

A Budget Impact Analysis

Abstract

Background

Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections.

Objectives

This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.

Data Sources

Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists.

Review Methods

Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars.

Results

The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2.8 million to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the first year of conversion; however, in subsequent years there are savings of $4.2 million per year. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system.

Limitations

This analysis represents the cost of conversion for those currently receiving intramuscular injections. There are no conversion costs for those who are prescribed oral supplements as an initial therapy, and so the savings could be even greater than reported. As well, an underlying assumption of this analysis is that patients will comply with oral supplementation.

Conclusions

Over 5 years, there are savings of $14.2 million to the health care system from switching to vitamin B12 oral supplements.

Plain Language Summary

Vitamin B12 deficiency has long been thought to be associated with dementia and other neurocognitive disorders. In a separate report, Health Quality Ontario (HQO) reviewed the published research on this issue and found only weak evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with the onset of dementia. That review also found moderate evidence that treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve dementia and that oral supplements are as effective as injections of vitamin B12.

In 2010, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Each year, approximately 110,000 residents receive vitamin B12 injections to boost their levels of vitamin B12. HQO commissioned an economic analysis to estimate the cost savings of switching from vitamin B12 injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. This study concluded that the Ontario health care system could save $14.5 million in 5 years by switching to oral supplements, assuming that patients took the oral supplements as required.

Economic Analysis

The Programs for the Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH) was commissioned by Health Quality Ontario to evaluate the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. Published economic evaluations are reviewed, and the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections to oral supplements is estimated.

Health Quality Ontario conducts full evidence-based analyses, including economic analyses, of health technologies being considered for use in Ontario. These analyses are then presented to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee, whose mandate is to examine proposed health technologies in the context of available evidence and existing clinical practice, and to provide advice and recommendations to Ontario health care practitioners, the broader health care system, and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

DISCLAIMER: Health Quality Ontario uses a standardized costing method for its economic analyses. The main cost categories and associated methods of retrieval from the province’s perspective are described below.

  • Hospital costs: Ontario Case Costing Initiative cost data are used for in-hospital stay, emergency department visit, and day procedure costs for the designated International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes and Canadian Classification of Health Interventions procedure codes. Adjustments may be required to reflect accuracy in the estimated costs of the diagnoses and procedures under consideration. Due to difficulties in estimating indirect costs in hospitals associated with a particular diagnosis or procedure, Health Quality Ontario normally defaults to a consideration of direct treatment costs only.
  • Non-hospital costs: These include physician services costs obtained from the Ontario Schedule of Physician Benefits, laboratory fees from the Ontario Schedule of Laboratory Fees, drug costs from the Ontario Drug Benefit Formulary, and device costs from the perspective of local health care institutions whenever possible, or from the device manufacturer. Discounting: For cost-effectiveness analyses, a discount rate of 5% is applied (to both costs and effects/QALYs), as recommended by economic guidelines.
  • Downstream costs: All reported downstream costs are based on assumptions of population trends (i.e., incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates), time horizon, resource utilization, patient compliance, health care patterns, market trends (i.e., rates of intervention uptake or trends in current programs in place in the province), and estimates of funding and prices. These may or may not be realized by the Ontario health care system or individual institutions and are often based on evidence from the medical literature, standard listing references, and educated hypotheses from expert panels. In cases where a deviation from this standard is used, an explanation is offered as to the reasons, the assumptions, and the revised approach.

The economic analysis represents an estimate only, based on the assumptions and costing methods explicitly stated above. These estimates will change if different assumptions and costing methods are applied to the analysis.

NOTE: Numbers may be rounded to the nearest decimal point, as they may be reported from an Excel spreadsheet.

Background

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is essential for normal red blood cell formation, certain enzyme reactions, and neurologic function. (1) This vitamin can be found in foods of animal origin (i.e., meat, fish, eggs) as well as in some fortified substitutes. Vitamin B12 deficiency is defined as a serum vitamin B12 level of less than 150 pmol/L. This deficiency can cause anemia and in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. People who consume diets free of animal products as well as those who have pernicious anemia (i.e., malabsorption) are at a greater risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency. (1;2)

For those with deficiency, the dose of vitamin B12 required varies by severity; however, on average 1,000 μg/day is recommended. (3) In Canada, this vitamin is often administered through intramuscular injections in a physician’s office, which results in substantial costs and inconvenience. (4) In the clinical evidence-based analysis, 3 randomized controlled studies reported that oral vitamin B12 supplementation was as effective as vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in treating patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Despite the first publication of this finding by Kuzminski in 1998, (5) a survey of Canadian physicians in 2007 revealed that 5.6% used oral vitamin B12 as an alternative to intramuscular injections and that only 25% of physicians were aware of the published trial. (4)

Objective

This economic analysis aims to determine the cost of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.

Economic Literature Review

An economic literature search was first conducted on October 9, 2012, and a second search was conducted on June 3, 2013, to update the literature. The following databases were searched: Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, Wiley Cochrane, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment. Studies published from January 1, 2002, until June 3, 2013 were included. The following criteria were considered:

  • Full economic evaluations: cost-utility analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis
  • Economic evaluations reporting incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (i.e., cost per quality-adjusted life year/life years gained or cost per event avoided)
  • Studies in patients with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Studies in English

Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Appendix 1 describes the literature search strategy.

Of 121 citations, 4 were identified as potentially relevant. After full-text review, 1 article was found that examined the costs of switching patients from vitamin B12 intramuscular injections to oral supplements. By examining the reference list of this article, another economic article was identified and included. Therefore the economic literature search identified 2 relevant articles.

One Canadian study used a third-party payer perspective to estimate the savings of switching all elderly patients (65 years of age or older) receiving vitamin B12 (cobalamin) injections to oral supplements. (3) The estimated savings over 5 years was between $2.8 million and $17.6 million (Cdn). These savings were mostly attributed to avoidable physician visits for injections. In another study conducted in the United Kingdom, the potential savings were estimated from a health care system perspective. (6) The results suggest that conversion to oral supplements in the first year was considerably more expensive than intramuscular injections as a result of closer monitoring of those on oral supplements during the first year. However, once the conversion period ended, the oral regimen was cheaper (£35.55 [GBP] per patient for oral supplements compared with £55.99–99.99 per patient for intramuscular injections). These savings were mainly attributed to nursing time avoided.

Primary Economic Evaluation

Published economic evaluations demonstrated the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections to oral supplements. However, the Canadian study included only patients aged 65 years and older, and the other study was conducted in the United Kingdom. Because of these limitations, a budget impact analysis of switching patients aged 18 years and older to oral supplements was conducted.

Target Population

The target population of this economic analysis was patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.

Perspective

The primary analytic perspective was that of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.

Economic Analysis Method

Patients and Databases

Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 (cobalamin) intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. The ODB covers the cost of select prescriptions for those 65 years of age and older or those who are economically deprived. To measure resource use for administering vitamin B12 injections to patients, all physician claims for intramuscular injections (fee codes G372 and G373) were identified from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) database for 1 year following the vitamin B12 prescription claim. Because those younger than 65 years of age would not be captured by the ODB database, another cohort was created. Cohort 2 consisted of patients 18 to 64 years of age who received 6 or more intramuscular injections (fee codes G372 and G373) within 1 year and had a vitamin B12 level laboratory test (fee code L345) 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim.

To avoid intramuscular injections for other indications, only those injections performed by family physicians and internists (identified through the Registered Physicians Database) were included in the analysis. Because vaccinations are claimed using a separate code, the intramuscular injections should primarily represent vitamin B12 injections.

Resources and Costs

To estimate the resources needed to switch all patients from vitamin B12 intramuscular injections to high-dose oral B12 supplements, physician experts were consulted. The resources and costs are reported in Table 1. We assumed that a physician visit to explain to patients the benefits of oral therapy and instructions for use would take place on the day they came in to receive their intramuscular injection, and so this visit was not added to the conversion cost. To convert patients to oral therapy, we assumed there would be a physician visit (intermediate assessment fee code A007) at 6 months in order to test the patient’s vitamin B12 level and complete blood count. A blood sample collection fee was also added to the conversion cost.

Table 1:
Resource Items and Costs of Oral Therapy and Intramuscular Injections

The annual cost of vitamin B12 injections was determined by multiplying the total number of ODB prescription claims and OHIP intramuscular injection claims by their unit cost. The ODB database was used to collect the number of ODB claims and the unit cost. It was assumed that one prescription claim would last the whole year. A cost of $6.74 was applied to each vitamin B12 prescription claim, as this was the mean cost of a vitamin B12 prescription among our sample. This cost was obtained from the ODB database and included the drug cost and a pharmacist dispensing fee. The number of claims for intramuscular injections, separated by fee code, was obtained from the OHIP database. The cost of the intramuscular injection was taken from the Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services and was $6.75 for the first injection (fee code G373) and $3.89 for each additional injection or billed with a visit (fee code G372). All costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars.

Variability and Uncertainty

A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the criteria for identifying cohort 2. The timing of the vitamin B12 laboratory test varied from 2 months to 4 months before the first intramuscular injection. As well, the number of intramuscular injections a patient needed to receive to be included in the cohort varied from 6 or more injections to 4 or more injections within 1 year.

Generalizability

The findings of this economic analysis cannot be generalized to all patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. They can, however, be used to guide decision-making about the specific patient populations addressed in the trials.

Results of Budget Impact Analysis

Figure 1 demonstrates the volume of patients in each cohort per fiscal year. In 2006/2007 there was a steep increase in the volume of patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections; however, over the remaining 4 years the volume of patients remained stable. As a result, we have based our estimates on the volume of patients in the most recent fiscal year available (2010/2011).

Figure 1:
Volume of Patients in Each Cohort per Fiscal Year

Patient Characteristics

Most patients in cohort 1 were female (62.2%), and the mean age was 70.4 years (standard deviation [SD],13.2). In cohort 2, most patients were also female (68.1%), and the mean age was 50.6 (SD, 14.4).

Budget Impact

Figure 2 demonstrates that the number of intramuscular injection has remained stable over the past 3 years. In fiscal year 2010/2011 the number of intramuscular injection claims was 302,156 and 137,839 for fee codes G372 and G373, respectively. For a volume of 71,580 patients, the mean number of intramuscular injections per patient was 6.15 per year.

Figure 2:
Number of Intramuscular Injection Claims for Cohort 1

The total annual cost for cohort 1 was $482,449 for the ODB vitamin B12 prescription claims and $2.1 million for the intramuscular injection claims (Table 2). Therefore, the total cost to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care is $2.6 million. The cost to the ministry for converting 71,580 patients to oral therapy is $4.6 million in the first year; however, in subsequent years there are no conversion costs. The incremental cost in year 1 is $2 million; however in each subsequent year there are savings of $2.6 million.

Table 2:
Cohort 1 (n = 71,580) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections

Figure 3 demonstrates the number of intramuscular injection claims per fiscal year for cohort 2. The total number of intramuscular injection claims in fiscal year 2010/2011 was 335,729. Among 38,097 patients the mean number of intramuscular injections per patient was 8.81 per year.

Figure 3:
Number of Intramuscular Injection Claims for Cohort 2

The total annual cost for intramuscular injections for cohort 2 was $1.6 million (Table 3). The cost to the ministry for converting patients to oral therapy is $2.5 million in the first year and zero in subsequent years. Therefore, there is an incremental cost of $790,567 in the first year of converting patients to oral vitamin B12; however, there are savings of $1.6 million in each subsequent year.

Table 3:
Cohort 2 (n = 38,097) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections

The annual and 5-year budget impact of converting patients in both cohorts to oral supplement therapy is presented in Table 4. Over 5 years the savings to the ministry are $14.2 million.

Table 4:
Annual and 5-Year Budget Impact

Sensitivity analysis

The results were insensitive to variations in the identification of cohort 2 (Table 5). If the review period for a vitamin B12 test is 4 months instead of 2 months, the savings increase to $14.6 million. If the review period increases to 4 months and patients receive 4 or more injections within 1 year, instead of 6 or more, the savings are $15 million.

Table 5:
Sensitivity Analysis

Conclusions

Approximately 110,000 patients receive vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in Ontario annually. Of these, approximately 65% are 65 years of age or older and most are female. This analysis demonstrated that converting this treatment to oral supplements would save the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care the costs of the vitamin B12 drug and injections; however, there would be conversion costs in the first year. The net budget impact in the first year is $2.8 million, but there are savings of $4.2 million per year thereafter. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system. These savings could be greater, as there are no conversion costs for newly identified cases of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, an underlying assumption in this analysis is that patients will comply with oral therapy.

Acknowledgements

Editorial Staff

Elizabeth Jean Betsch, ELS

Amy Zierler, BA

Medical Information Services

Corinne Holubowich, BEd, MLIS

Kellee Kaulback, BA(H), MISt

Clinical Expert Advisory Panel: Appropriate Utilization of Vitamin B12 Testing for Neurocognitive-Based Indications
Panel MembersAffiliation(s)Appointment(s)
Chair
Dr. Joel RaySt. Michael’s Hospital/University of TorontoScientist/Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine
Family Medicine
Dr. Andrea MoserBaycrest Health ServicesAssociate Medical Director
Geriatric Medicine
Dr. Angeles GarciaQueen’s UniversityProfessor, Department of Medicine
Neurology
Dr. Stephen H. PasternakUniversity of Western OntarioDirector, Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer’s Disease Research
Elizabeth FingerUniversity of Western OntarioAssistant Professor, Clinical Neurological Sciences
Medial Biochemistry & Medical Genetics
Dr. David E. C. ColeUniversity of TorontoProfessor, Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology
Health Care System Representation
Laurie SweetingMinistry of Health & Long Term CareSenior Program Consultant

Appendices

Appendix 1: Literature Search Strategies

Literature Search - Vitamin B12 Economic Evidence-Based Analysis

Search date: June 3, 2013

Databases searched: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE; All EBM Reviews; CINAHL;

Limits: 2002-present; English

Filters: Economic

Questions:

  1. Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia?
  2. What is the effect of treatment of vitamin B12 in patients with dementia who are vitamin B12 deficient?
  3. Is treatment with oral vitamin B12 supplements as effective as treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency? (this doesn’t need to be specifically within a population with dementia—this is for all people with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency)

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 to April 2013, EBM Reviews - ACP Journal Club 1991 to May 2013, EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects 2nd Quarter 2013, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials April 2013, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Methodology Register 3rd Quarter 2012, EBM Reviews - Health Technology Assessment 2nd Quarter 2013, EBM Reviews - NHS Economic Evaluation Database 2nd Quarter 2013, Embase 1980 to 2013 Week 22, Ovid MEDLINE(R) 1946 to May Week 4 2013, Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations June 03, 2013

Search Strategy:

#QueryResults
1exp Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed9463
2exp Vitamin B 12/df use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed18
3Transcobalamins/df use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed113
4exp Cyanocobalamin Deficiency/ use emez6345
5((b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin) adj3 (deficien* or inadequa* or insufficien* or low blood level* or low serum level* or low plasma level* or suboptimal or sub-optimal or subnormal or sub-normal)).ti,ab.9274
6(an?emia* adj2 (addison* or pernicious* or megaloblastic)).ti,ab.11200
7or/1-625941
8exp Vitamin B 12/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed18642
9Transcobalamins/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed952
10Transcobalamin/ use emez613
11Cyanocobalamin/ use emez28702
12(b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin).ti,ab.50629
13or/8-1267748
147 or 1377991
15exp Parenteral Nutrition/56461
16exp injections, intramuscular/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp intramuscular drug administration/ use emez85543
17exp injections, subcutaneous/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp subcutaneous drug administration/ use emez120840
18(((parenteral or intravenous) adj (feeding* or nutrition* or alimentation* or supplement*)) or ((intramuscular or subcutaneous) adj injection*)).ti,ab.95436
19or/15-18302737
2014 and 191530
21exp Economics/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp Models, Economic/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp Resource Allocation/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp “Value of Life”/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp “Quality of Life”/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed607787
22exp “Health Care Cost”/ use emez or exp Health Economics/ use emez or exp Resource Management/ use emez or exp Economic Aspect/ use emez or exp Economics/ use emez or exp Quality Adjusted Life Year/ use emez or exp Socioeconomics/ use emez or exp Statistical Model/ use emez or exp “Quality of Life”/ use emez1323230
23(econom* or cost* or budget* or pharmacoeconomic* or pharmaco-economic* or valu*).ti.525746
24((cost$ adj benefit$) or costbenefit$ or (cost adj effective$) or costeffective$ or econometric$ or life value or quality-adjusted life year$ or quality adjusted life year$ or quality-adjusted life expectanc$ or quality adjusted life expectanc$ or sensitivity analys$ or “value of life” or “willingness to pay”).ti,ab.220684
25ec.fs.3581989
26or/21-255575546
2720 and 26287
28limit 27 to english language [Limit not valid in CDSR, ACP Journal Club,DARE,CCTR,CLCMR; records were retained]242
29limit 28 to yr=”2002 -Current” [Limit not valid in DARE; records were retained]120
30remove duplicates from 29114

Database: CINAHL

#QueryResults
S1(MH “Vitamin B12 Deficiency+”)638
S2((b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin) N3 (deficien* or inadequa* or insufficien* or low blood level* or low serum level* or low plasma level* or suboptimal or sub-optimal or subnormal or sub-normal))860
S3(an?emia* N2 (addison* or pernicious* or megaloblastic))282
S4S1 OR S2 OR S31,062
S5(MH “Vitamin B12”)2,059
S6(b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin)3,641
S7S5 OR S63,641
S8S4 OR S73,778
S9(MH “Parenteral Nutrition+”)3,740
S10(MH “Injections, Intramuscular+”)2,453
S11(MH “Injections, Subcutaneous+”)2,377
S12(((parenteral or intravenous) N1 (feeding* or nutrition* or alimentation* or supplement*)) or ((intramuscular or subcutaneous) N1 injection*))10,277
S13S9 OR S10 OR S11 OR S1210,343
S14S8 AND S1368
S15(MH “Economics+”) or (MH “Resource Allocation+”) or MW ec or (MH “Quality of Life+”) or (econom* or cost* or budget* or pharmacoeconomic* or pharmaco-economic* or valu*) or ((cost* N1 benefit*) or costbenefit* or (cost N1 effective*) or costeffective* or econometric* or life value or quality-adjusted life year* or quality adjusted life year* or quality-adjusted life expectanc* or quality adjusted life expectanc* or sensitivity analys* or “value of life” or “willingness to pay”)758,377
S16S14 AND S15
S14 AND S15
16
S17Limiters - Published Date from: 20020101-20131231; English Language14

Notes

Suggested Citation

This report should be cited as follows:

Masucci L, Goeree R. Vitamin B12 intramuscular injections versus oral supplements: a budget impact analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser [Internet]. 2013 November; 13(24):1–24. Available from: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/publications-and-ohtac-recommendations/ontario-health-technology-assessment-series/B12-injection-vs-oral-budget-analysis

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Indexing

The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series is currently indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Excerpta Medica/Embase, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database.

Conflict of Interest Statement

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All reports in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series are subject to external expert peer review. Additionally, Health Quality Ontario posts draft reports and recommendations on its website for public comment prior to publication. For more information, please visit: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/evidence-process/evidence-review-process/professional-and-public-engagement-and-consultation.

About Health Quality Ontario

Health Quality Ontario is an arms-length agency of the Ontario government. It is a partner and leader in transforming Ontario’s health care system so that it can deliver a better experience of care, better outcomes for Ontarians, and better value for money.

Health Quality Ontario strives to promote health care that is supported by the best available scientific evidence. The Evidence Development and Standards branch works with expert advisory panels, clinical experts, scientific collaborators, and field evaluation partners to conduct evidence-based reviews that evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health interventions in Ontario.

Based on the evidence provided by Evidence Development and Standards and its partners, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee—a standing advisory subcommittee of the Health Quality Ontario Board—makes recommendations about the uptake, diffusion, distribution, or removal of health interventions to Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, clinicians, health system leaders, and policy-makers.

Health Quality Ontario’s research is published as part of the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series, which is indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Excerpta Medica/Embase, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Corresponding Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee recommendations and other associated reports are also published on the Health Quality Ontario website. Visit http://www.hqontario.ca for more information.

About the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series

To conduct its comprehensive analyses, Evidence Development and Standards and its research partners review the available scientific literature, making every effort to consider all relevant national and international research; collaborate with partners across relevant government branches; consult with expert advisory panels, clinical and other external experts, and developers of health technologies; and solicit any necessary supplemental information.

In addition, Evidence Development and Standards collects and analyzes information about how a health intervention fits within current practice and existing treatment alternatives. Details about the diffusion of the intervention into current health care practices in Ontario add an important dimension to the review.

The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee uses a unique decision determinants framework when making recommendations to the Health Quality Ontario Board. The framework takes into account clinical benefits, value for money, societal and ethical considerations, and the economic feasibility of the health care intervention in Ontario. Draft Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee recommendations and evidence-based reviews are posted for 21 days on the Health Quality Ontario website, giving individuals and organizations an opportunity to provide comments prior to publication. For more information, please visit: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/evidence-process/evidence-review-process/professional-and-public-engagement-and-consultation.

Disclaimer

This report was prepared by the Evidence Development and Standards branch at Health Quality Ontario or one of its research partners for the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee and was developed from analysis, interpretation, and comparison of scientific research. It also incorporates, when available, Ontario data and information provided by experts and applicants to Health Quality Ontario. This report is current as of the date of the literature search specified in the Research Methods section. Health Quality Ontario makes no representation that the literature search captured every publication that was or could be applicable to the subject matter of the report. It is possible that relevant scientific findings may have been reported since the completion of the review. This analysis may be superseded by an updated publication on the same topic. Please check the Health Quality Ontario website for a list of all publications: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/publications-and-ohtac-recommendations.

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List of Tables

Table 1: Resource Items and Costs of Oral Therapy and Intramuscular Injections
Table 2: Cohort 1 (n = 71,580) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections
Table 3: Cohort 2 (n = 38,097) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections
Table 4: Annual and 5-Year Budget Impact
Table 5: Sensitivity Analysis

List of Figures

Figure 1: Volume of Patients in Each Cohort per Fiscal Year
Figure 2: Number of Intramuscular Injection Claims for Cohort 1
Figure 3: Number of Intramuscular Injection Claims for Cohort 2

List of Abbreviations

CINAHL
EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
HQO
Health Quality Ontario
ODB
Ontario Drug Benefit
OHIP
Ontario Health Insurance Plan
OHTAC
Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee
OSB
Ontario Schedule of Benefits

References

1. Health Canada. Food and Nutrition: Vitamin B12. 2012. Mar 22, [[cited 2013 Apr 4]]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/nutrition/measures-mesures/vit_b12-eng.php .
2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vitamin B12. Rome: world Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2013. Apr 4, [[cited 2013 Apr 4]]. Chapter 5, Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bankok, Thailand. Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y2809E/y2809e0b.htm .
3. van Walraven C, Austin P, Naylor CD. Vitamin B12 injections versus oral supplements. How much money could be saved by switching from injections to pills? Can Fam Physician. 2001;47:79–86. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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