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Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to adverse health effects such as anemia and, in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. In Canada, patients with vitamin B12 deficiency are typically given intramuscular injections, which incur considerable cost and inconvenience. The clinical evidence-based analysis has found that oral supplementation is as effective as intramuscular injections.
This economic analysis aimed to estimate the cost savings of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.
Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. The Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database was used to identify all physician claims for intramuscular injections as well as laboratory tests assessing vitamin B12 levels. The Registered Physicians Database was used to identify the type of physician; the analysis was restricted to family physicians and internists.
Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the ODB database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. Those covered under the ODB are 65 years of age or older and are economically deprived. A second cohort was created to capture those 18 to 64 years of age receiving injections. Cohort 2 consisted of patients (not in cohort 1) who received 6 or more intramuscular injections within 1 year and had a laboratory test 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim. Physician experts were consulted to estimate the resources and costs of converting patients to oral supplements. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care perspective was taken, and all costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars.
The budget impact analysis demonstrated costs of $2.8 million to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in the first year of conversion; however, in subsequent years there are savings of $4.2 million per year. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system.
This analysis represents the cost of conversion for those currently receiving intramuscular injections. There are no conversion costs for those who are prescribed oral supplements as an initial therapy, and so the savings could be even greater than reported. As well, an underlying assumption of this analysis is that patients will comply with oral supplementation.
Over 5 years, there are savings of $14.2 million to the health care system from switching to vitamin B12 oral supplements.
Vitamin B12 deficiency has long been thought to be associated with dementia and other neurocognitive disorders. In a separate report, Health Quality Ontario (HQO) reviewed the published research on this issue and found only weak evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with the onset of dementia. That review also found moderate evidence that treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve dementia and that oral supplements are as effective as injections of vitamin B12.
In 2010, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Each year, approximately 110,000 residents receive vitamin B12 injections to boost their levels of vitamin B12. HQO commissioned an economic analysis to estimate the cost savings of switching from vitamin B12 injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. This study concluded that the Ontario health care system could save $14.5 million in 5 years by switching to oral supplements, assuming that patients took the oral supplements as required.
The Programs for the Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH) was commissioned by Health Quality Ontario to evaluate the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 to high-dose oral supplements for patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed B12 deficiency. Published economic evaluations are reviewed, and the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections to oral supplements is estimated.
Health Quality Ontario conducts full evidence-based analyses, including economic analyses, of health technologies being considered for use in Ontario. These analyses are then presented to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee, whose mandate is to examine proposed health technologies in the context of available evidence and existing clinical practice, and to provide advice and recommendations to Ontario health care practitioners, the broader health care system, and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
DISCLAIMER: Health Quality Ontario uses a standardized costing method for its economic analyses. The main cost categories and associated methods of retrieval from the province’s perspective are described below.
The economic analysis represents an estimate only, based on the assumptions and costing methods explicitly stated above. These estimates will change if different assumptions and costing methods are applied to the analysis.
NOTE: Numbers may be rounded to the nearest decimal point, as they may be reported from an Excel spreadsheet.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is essential for normal red blood cell formation, certain enzyme reactions, and neurologic function. (1) This vitamin can be found in foods of animal origin (i.e., meat, fish, eggs) as well as in some fortified substitutes. Vitamin B12 deficiency is defined as a serum vitamin B12 level of less than 150 pmol/L. This deficiency can cause anemia and in some cases, permanent neurologic damage. People who consume diets free of animal products as well as those who have pernicious anemia (i.e., malabsorption) are at a greater risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency. (1;2)
For those with deficiency, the dose of vitamin B12 required varies by severity; however, on average 1,000 μg/day is recommended. (3) In Canada, this vitamin is often administered through intramuscular injections in a physician’s office, which results in substantial costs and inconvenience. (4) In the clinical evidence-based analysis, 3 randomized controlled studies reported that oral vitamin B12 supplementation was as effective as vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in treating patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Despite the first publication of this finding by Kuzminski in 1998, (5) a survey of Canadian physicians in 2007 revealed that 5.6% used oral vitamin B12 as an alternative to intramuscular injections and that only 25% of physicians were aware of the published trial. (4)
This economic analysis aims to determine the cost of switching from intramuscular injections to high-dose oral supplements for patients with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.
An economic literature search was first conducted on October 9, 2012, and a second search was conducted on June 3, 2013, to update the literature. The following databases were searched: Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, Wiley Cochrane, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment. Studies published from January 1, 2002, until June 3, 2013 were included. The following criteria were considered:
Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Reference lists were also examined for any additional relevant studies not identified through the search. Appendix 1 describes the literature search strategy.
Of 121 citations, 4 were identified as potentially relevant. After full-text review, 1 article was found that examined the costs of switching patients from vitamin B12 intramuscular injections to oral supplements. By examining the reference list of this article, another economic article was identified and included. Therefore the economic literature search identified 2 relevant articles.
One Canadian study used a third-party payer perspective to estimate the savings of switching all elderly patients (65 years of age or older) receiving vitamin B12 (cobalamin) injections to oral supplements. (3) The estimated savings over 5 years was between $2.8 million and $17.6 million (Cdn). These savings were mostly attributed to avoidable physician visits for injections. In another study conducted in the United Kingdom, the potential savings were estimated from a health care system perspective. (6) The results suggest that conversion to oral supplements in the first year was considerably more expensive than intramuscular injections as a result of closer monitoring of those on oral supplements during the first year. However, once the conversion period ended, the oral regimen was cheaper (£35.55 [GBP] per patient for oral supplements compared with £55.99–99.99 per patient for intramuscular injections). These savings were mainly attributed to nursing time avoided.
Published economic evaluations demonstrated the budget impact of switching from intramuscular injections to oral supplements. However, the Canadian study included only patients aged 65 years and older, and the other study was conducted in the United Kingdom. Because of these limitations, a budget impact analysis of switching patients aged 18 years and older to oral supplements was conducted.
The target population of this economic analysis was patients aged 18 years and older with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency.
The primary analytic perspective was that of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving vitamin B12 (cobalamin) intramuscular injections in any fiscal year between 2006 and 2011. Two cohorts of patients were identified. For cohort 1, the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) database was used to identify patients who were prescribed vitamin B12 injections. The ODB covers the cost of select prescriptions for those 65 years of age and older or those who are economically deprived. To measure resource use for administering vitamin B12 injections to patients, all physician claims for intramuscular injections (fee codes G372 and G373) were identified from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) database for 1 year following the vitamin B12 prescription claim. Because those younger than 65 years of age would not be captured by the ODB database, another cohort was created. Cohort 2 consisted of patients 18 to 64 years of age who received 6 or more intramuscular injections (fee codes G372 and G373) within 1 year and had a vitamin B12 level laboratory test (fee code L345) 2 months before the intramuscular injection claim.
To avoid intramuscular injections for other indications, only those injections performed by family physicians and internists (identified through the Registered Physicians Database) were included in the analysis. Because vaccinations are claimed using a separate code, the intramuscular injections should primarily represent vitamin B12 injections.
To estimate the resources needed to switch all patients from vitamin B12 intramuscular injections to high-dose oral B12 supplements, physician experts were consulted. The resources and costs are reported in Table 1. We assumed that a physician visit to explain to patients the benefits of oral therapy and instructions for use would take place on the day they came in to receive their intramuscular injection, and so this visit was not added to the conversion cost. To convert patients to oral therapy, we assumed there would be a physician visit (intermediate assessment fee code A007) at 6 months in order to test the patient’s vitamin B12 level and complete blood count. A blood sample collection fee was also added to the conversion cost.
The annual cost of vitamin B12 injections was determined by multiplying the total number of ODB prescription claims and OHIP intramuscular injection claims by their unit cost. The ODB database was used to collect the number of ODB claims and the unit cost. It was assumed that one prescription claim would last the whole year. A cost of $6.74 was applied to each vitamin B12 prescription claim, as this was the mean cost of a vitamin B12 prescription among our sample. This cost was obtained from the ODB database and included the drug cost and a pharmacist dispensing fee. The number of claims for intramuscular injections, separated by fee code, was obtained from the OHIP database. The cost of the intramuscular injection was taken from the Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services and was $6.75 for the first injection (fee code G373) and $3.89 for each additional injection or billed with a visit (fee code G372). All costs are expressed in 2013 Canadian dollars.
A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the criteria for identifying cohort 2. The timing of the vitamin B12 laboratory test varied from 2 months to 4 months before the first intramuscular injection. As well, the number of intramuscular injections a patient needed to receive to be included in the cohort varied from 6 or more injections to 4 or more injections within 1 year.
The findings of this economic analysis cannot be generalized to all patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. They can, however, be used to guide decision-making about the specific patient populations addressed in the trials.
Figure 1 demonstrates the volume of patients in each cohort per fiscal year. In 2006/2007 there was a steep increase in the volume of patients receiving vitamin B12 intramuscular injections; however, over the remaining 4 years the volume of patients remained stable. As a result, we have based our estimates on the volume of patients in the most recent fiscal year available (2010/2011).
Most patients in cohort 1 were female (62.2%), and the mean age was 70.4 years (standard deviation [SD],13.2). In cohort 2, most patients were also female (68.1%), and the mean age was 50.6 (SD, 14.4).
Figure 2 demonstrates that the number of intramuscular injection has remained stable over the past 3 years. In fiscal year 2010/2011 the number of intramuscular injection claims was 302,156 and 137,839 for fee codes G372 and G373, respectively. For a volume of 71,580 patients, the mean number of intramuscular injections per patient was 6.15 per year.
The total annual cost for cohort 1 was $482,449 for the ODB vitamin B12 prescription claims and $2.1 million for the intramuscular injection claims (Table 2). Therefore, the total cost to the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care is $2.6 million. The cost to the ministry for converting 71,580 patients to oral therapy is $4.6 million in the first year; however, in subsequent years there are no conversion costs. The incremental cost in year 1 is $2 million; however in each subsequent year there are savings of $2.6 million.
Figure 3 demonstrates the number of intramuscular injection claims per fiscal year for cohort 2. The total number of intramuscular injection claims in fiscal year 2010/2011 was 335,729. Among 38,097 patients the mean number of intramuscular injections per patient was 8.81 per year.
The total annual cost for intramuscular injections for cohort 2 was $1.6 million (Table 3). The cost to the ministry for converting patients to oral therapy is $2.5 million in the first year and zero in subsequent years. Therefore, there is an incremental cost of $790,567 in the first year of converting patients to oral vitamin B12; however, there are savings of $1.6 million in each subsequent year.
The annual and 5-year budget impact of converting patients in both cohorts to oral supplement therapy is presented in Table 4. Over 5 years the savings to the ministry are $14.2 million.
The results were insensitive to variations in the identification of cohort 2 (Table 5). If the review period for a vitamin B12 test is 4 months instead of 2 months, the savings increase to $14.6 million. If the review period increases to 4 months and patients receive 4 or more injections within 1 year, instead of 6 or more, the savings are $15 million.
Approximately 110,000 patients receive vitamin B12 intramuscular injections in Ontario annually. Of these, approximately 65% are 65 years of age or older and most are female. This analysis demonstrated that converting this treatment to oral supplements would save the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care the costs of the vitamin B12 drug and injections; however, there would be conversion costs in the first year. The net budget impact in the first year is $2.8 million, but there are savings of $4.2 million per year thereafter. The cumulative 5-year budget impact demonstrates savings of $14.2 million to the health care system. These savings could be greater, as there are no conversion costs for newly identified cases of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, an underlying assumption in this analysis is that patients will comply with oral therapy.
Elizabeth Jean Betsch, ELS
Amy Zierler, BA
Medical Information Services
Corinne Holubowich, BEd, MLIS
Kellee Kaulback, BA(H), MISt
|Dr. Joel Ray||St. Michael’s Hospital/University of Toronto||Scientist/Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine|
|Dr. Andrea Moser||Baycrest Health Services||Associate Medical Director|
|Dr. Angeles Garcia||Queen’s University||Professor, Department of Medicine|
|Dr. Stephen H. Pasternak||University of Western Ontario||Director, Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer’s Disease Research|
|Elizabeth Finger||University of Western Ontario||Assistant Professor, Clinical Neurological Sciences|
|Medial Biochemistry & Medical Genetics|
|Dr. David E. C. Cole||University of Toronto||Professor, Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology|
|Health Care System Representation|
|Laurie Sweeting||Ministry of Health & Long Term Care||Senior Program Consultant|
Literature Search - Vitamin B12 Economic Evidence-Based Analysis
Search date: June 3, 2013
Databases searched: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE; All EBM Reviews; CINAHL;
Limits: 2002-present; English
Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 to April 2013, EBM Reviews - ACP Journal Club 1991 to May 2013, EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects 2nd Quarter 2013, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials April 2013, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Methodology Register 3rd Quarter 2012, EBM Reviews - Health Technology Assessment 2nd Quarter 2013, EBM Reviews - NHS Economic Evaluation Database 2nd Quarter 2013, Embase 1980 to 2013 Week 22, Ovid MEDLINE(R) 1946 to May Week 4 2013, Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations June 03, 2013
|1||exp Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||9463|
|2||exp Vitamin B 12/df use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||18|
|3||Transcobalamins/df use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||113|
|4||exp Cyanocobalamin Deficiency/ use emez||6345|
|5||((b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin) adj3 (deficien* or inadequa* or insufficien* or low blood level* or low serum level* or low plasma level* or suboptimal or sub-optimal or subnormal or sub-normal)).ti,ab.||9274|
|6||(an?emia* adj2 (addison* or pernicious* or megaloblastic)).ti,ab.||11200|
|8||exp Vitamin B 12/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||18642|
|9||Transcobalamins/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||952|
|10||Transcobalamin/ use emez||613|
|11||Cyanocobalamin/ use emez||28702|
|12||(b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin).ti,ab.||50629|
|14||7 or 13||77991|
|15||exp Parenteral Nutrition/||56461|
|16||exp injections, intramuscular/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp intramuscular drug administration/ use emez||85543|
|17||exp injections, subcutaneous/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp subcutaneous drug administration/ use emez||120840|
|18||(((parenteral or intravenous) adj (feeding* or nutrition* or alimentation* or supplement*)) or ((intramuscular or subcutaneous) adj injection*)).ti,ab.||95436|
|20||14 and 19||1530|
|21||exp Economics/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp Models, Economic/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp Resource Allocation/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp “Value of Life”/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed or exp “Quality of Life”/ use mesz,acp,cctr,coch,clcmr,dare,clhta,cleed||607787|
|22||exp “Health Care Cost”/ use emez or exp Health Economics/ use emez or exp Resource Management/ use emez or exp Economic Aspect/ use emez or exp Economics/ use emez or exp Quality Adjusted Life Year/ use emez or exp Socioeconomics/ use emez or exp Statistical Model/ use emez or exp “Quality of Life”/ use emez||1323230|
|23||(econom* or cost* or budget* or pharmacoeconomic* or pharmaco-economic* or valu*).ti.||525746|
|24||((cost$ adj benefit$) or costbenefit$ or (cost adj effective$) or costeffective$ or econometric$ or life value or quality-adjusted life year$ or quality adjusted life year$ or quality-adjusted life expectanc$ or quality adjusted life expectanc$ or sensitivity analys$ or “value of life” or “willingness to pay”).ti,ab.||220684|
|27||20 and 26||287|
|28||limit 27 to english language [Limit not valid in CDSR, ACP Journal Club,DARE,CCTR,CLCMR; records were retained]||242|
|29||limit 28 to yr=”2002 -Current” [Limit not valid in DARE; records were retained]||120|
|30||remove duplicates from 29||114|
|S1||(MH “Vitamin B12 Deficiency+”)||638|
|S2||((b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin) N3 (deficien* or inadequa* or insufficien* or low blood level* or low serum level* or low plasma level* or suboptimal or sub-optimal or subnormal or sub-normal))||860|
|S3||(an?emia* N2 (addison* or pernicious* or megaloblastic))||282|
|S4||S1 OR S2 OR S3||1,062|
|S5||(MH “Vitamin B12”)||2,059|
|S6||(b12 or b 12 or cyanocobalamin or cobalamin* or transcobalamin* or cobamide? or hydroxocobalamin or hydroxo-cobalamin or hydroxycobalamin)||3,641|
|S7||S5 OR S6||3,641|
|S8||S4 OR S7||3,778|
|S9||(MH “Parenteral Nutrition+”)||3,740|
|S10||(MH “Injections, Intramuscular+”)||2,453|
|S11||(MH “Injections, Subcutaneous+”)||2,377|
|S12||(((parenteral or intravenous) N1 (feeding* or nutrition* or alimentation* or supplement*)) or ((intramuscular or subcutaneous) N1 injection*))||10,277|
|S13||S9 OR S10 OR S11 OR S12||10,343|
|S14||S8 AND S13||68|
|S15||(MH “Economics+”) or (MH “Resource Allocation+”) or MW ec or (MH “Quality of Life+”) or (econom* or cost* or budget* or pharmacoeconomic* or pharmaco-economic* or valu*) or ((cost* N1 benefit*) or costbenefit* or (cost N1 effective*) or costeffective* or econometric* or life value or quality-adjusted life year* or quality adjusted life year* or quality-adjusted life expectanc* or quality adjusted life expectanc* or sensitivity analys* or “value of life” or “willingness to pay”)||758,377|
|S16||S14 AND S15|
S14 AND S15
|S17||Limiters - Published Date from: 20020101-20131231; English Language||14|
This report should be cited as follows:
Masucci L, Goeree R. Vitamin B12 intramuscular injections versus oral supplements: a budget impact analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser [Internet]. 2013 November; 13(24):1–24. Available from: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/publications-and-ohtac-recommendations/ontario-health-technology-assessment-series/B12-injection-vs-oral-budget-analysis
All inquiries regarding permission to reproduce any content in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series should be directed to EvidenceInfo/at/hqontario.ca.
All reports in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series are freely available in PDF format at the following URL: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/publications-and-ohtac-recommendations/ontario-health-technology-assessment-series.
The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series is currently indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Excerpta Medica/Embase, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database.
All reports in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series are impartial. There are no competing interests or conflicts of interest to declare.
All reports in the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series are subject to external expert peer review. Additionally, Health Quality Ontario posts draft reports and recommendations on its website for public comment prior to publication. For more information, please visit: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/evidence-process/evidence-review-process/professional-and-public-engagement-and-consultation.
Health Quality Ontario is an arms-length agency of the Ontario government. It is a partner and leader in transforming Ontario’s health care system so that it can deliver a better experience of care, better outcomes for Ontarians, and better value for money.
Health Quality Ontario strives to promote health care that is supported by the best available scientific evidence. The Evidence Development and Standards branch works with expert advisory panels, clinical experts, scientific collaborators, and field evaluation partners to conduct evidence-based reviews that evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health interventions in Ontario.
Based on the evidence provided by Evidence Development and Standards and its partners, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee—a standing advisory subcommittee of the Health Quality Ontario Board—makes recommendations about the uptake, diffusion, distribution, or removal of health interventions to Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, clinicians, health system leaders, and policy-makers.
Health Quality Ontario’s research is published as part of the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series, which is indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Excerpta Medica/Embase, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Corresponding Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee recommendations and other associated reports are also published on the Health Quality Ontario website. Visit http://www.hqontario.ca for more information.
To conduct its comprehensive analyses, Evidence Development and Standards and its research partners review the available scientific literature, making every effort to consider all relevant national and international research; collaborate with partners across relevant government branches; consult with expert advisory panels, clinical and other external experts, and developers of health technologies; and solicit any necessary supplemental information.
In addition, Evidence Development and Standards collects and analyzes information about how a health intervention fits within current practice and existing treatment alternatives. Details about the diffusion of the intervention into current health care practices in Ontario add an important dimension to the review.
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This report was prepared by the Evidence Development and Standards branch at Health Quality Ontario or one of its research partners for the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee and was developed from analysis, interpretation, and comparison of scientific research. It also incorporates, when available, Ontario data and information provided by experts and applicants to Health Quality Ontario. This report is current as of the date of the literature search specified in the Research Methods section. Health Quality Ontario makes no representation that the literature search captured every publication that was or could be applicable to the subject matter of the report. It is possible that relevant scientific findings may have been reported since the completion of the review. This analysis may be superseded by an updated publication on the same topic. Please check the Health Quality Ontario website for a list of all publications: http://www.hqontario.ca/evidence/publications-and-ohtac-recommendations.
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|Table 1: Resource Items and Costs of Oral Therapy and Intramuscular Injections|
|Table 2: Cohort 1 (n = 71,580) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections|
|Table 3: Cohort 2 (n = 38,097) Costs of Oral Supplements and Intramuscular Injections|
|Table 4: Annual and 5-Year Budget Impact|
|Table 5: Sensitivity Analysis|