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Descriptive Characteristics of 13 Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority (URM) Faculty at Academic Medical Centers*

CitationProgram goalReachEffectivenessAdoption/implementationMaintenance
Buchwald and Dick, 201135; Manson et al, 200638Provide intensive mentoring to promising junior American Indian and Alaska Native investigators29 Native American investigators who completed at least 1 year of the training program (n = 19), all core and affiliated faculty (n = 10)
  • Evaluation of the Native Investigator Development Program based on grants and manuscripts (authorship status) and the development of successful relationships
  • Social network analysis used to evaluate the program
  • Intensive 2-year mentoring program of promising junior Native American and Alaskan Native investigators
  • Individualized mentoring team
  • Seminars on health and health care issues of Native communities
  • Intensive statistics and writing instruction
  • Mentored pilot studies (secondary data analysis in Year 1 and primary data collection in Year 2)
  • Intense weekly interactions with mentors
  • Frequent in-person group meetings
  • Mock review of trainees’ grant applications
Not discussed; however, programs have been in existence since 1998 when external funding was obtained
Daley et al, 200630; 200931Create a cohort of investigators engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice19 full-time salaried URM junior faculty and 75 non-URM junior faculty
  • 18 out of 19 URM faculty completed the NCLAM National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine program
  • 15 of 18 are advancing their careers at University of California, San Diego (UCSD); specifics not provided
  • 4 URMF faculty received pilot funds from the program
  • Formalized, proactive, instrumental mentoring process
  • 12 half-day faculty development workshops
  • 7-month, one-on-one mentoring program (12 hours per month)
  • 2-hour academic performance counseling session
  • Professional development project
Project EXPORT funding in collaboration with UCSD, San Diego State University, and local agencies
Bussey- Jones et al, 200641Foster a collaborative environment to develop a junior faculty peer mentoring program7 internal medicine faculty who had been at Emory University between 1 and 5 yearsDeveloped “work rules” and established agreement to adhere and hold each other accountable
  • Division support for time and financial resources provided
  • Two members responsible for the program
  • Peer mentoring program
  • Self-directed didactic curriculum (research, advanced teaching skills, and professional development)
  • Experienced senior faculty advisors
  • Half-day, weekly activities (90–120 min)
Institutional funding
Johnson et al, 199834; 199933Development of a mentoring program to increase the number of minorities entering the faculty development pipeline and enhance faculty retention36 Hispanic and African American early-career faculty
  • Increase in minority faculty from 28 to 32 during the 4 years of the initial program
  • Considered too soon to report on the outcome of the program (at the writing of the manuscript)
  • Annual meeting regarding career counseling and promotion
  • Assistance in identifying and establishing a mentor
  • Research support regarding study design, data entry, management, and analysis
  • Annual medical scientific writing seminar
  • Workshop to refine presentation skills
  • Provides faculty with access to epidemiologists, evaluation specialist, research assistants, statisticians, and data programmers
  • Funding the Division of Disadvantaged Assistance, Bureau of Health Professions
  • Institutional funding is also provided
Kosoko- Lasaki et al, 200643Development of a mentoring program to provide junior faculty members with two or more designated mentors25–33 URM facultyImpact after 18 months:
  • Increased retention rate of URM faculty
  • 3 promoted and 1 tenured
  • Increased proportion of faculty on tenure track (25% to 44%)
  • Annual meetings with the director for faculty development
  • Pairing of mentees and mentors based on 1-page survey on areas of expertise/interest
  • Department chairs included as the mentors
  • Financial support to participate in professional development seminars
  • Required presentation to other URM faculty on their seminar experiences
  • Minimum of 2 annual meetings with mentors with documentation provided to the program coordinator
  • 6-month and 3-year evaluations of the mentor pairing
  • Small amount of protected time provided for scholarly activities
Extramural funding for the Center of Excellence in Faculty Development
Lewellen- Williams et al, 200640Development of a multilevel mentoring model (Peer- Onsite-Distance [POD] model) to promote retention and career development among URM medical school faculty22 mentees, 9 mentors, and 10 on-site mentors
  • Primary outcome: Creation of the POD mentoring model
  • Secondary outcome: Transitioning from a grant- funded program to an ongoing activity supported by the College of Medicine
  • Minimal outcomes reported; largely descriptive. Future studies planned to assess the productivity and career satisfaction of the program’s mentees
  • Multilevel mentoring model
  • Tailored to the unique needs of URM medical school faculty
  • Peer mentors to socialize new faculty to the culture of academic medicine
  • On-site senior mentors to serve as advocates, coaches, and liaisons for their mentees
  • Distance mentors who present annual “lunch-n-learn” seminars on campus
  • Initiated with an NCI National Cancer Institute cancer disparities grant, but transitioned to institutional funding
  • Established a Center of Diversity Affairs, with a full-time director to manage the mentoring program
Rabionet et al, 200939Development of a multifaceted mentoring model for minority researchers studying HIV health disparities15 mentors; number of mentees not explicitly mentioned
  • Establishment of a formalized, multi- institutional collaboration for the mentoring program
  • Involvement of service
  • institutions
  • 100% of mentors retained
  • 90% of mentees retained
  • Formalized multi-institutional collaborations in Puerto Rico and the United States
  • Careful selection of mentor and mentee pairings
  • Didactic and experiential activities addressing six core areas of cross- cutting research competencies
  • On-site visits to the mentors’ research facilities
  • Active engagement in a research project for a hands-on learning experience
  • Participation in seminars, retreats, and interactive group sessions
Funded by National Center for Research Resources and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Rust et al, 200637Development, implementation, and evaluation of a faculty development program for faculty in family medicine
  • 123 faculty
  • (1-year program, N = 86; 6-week modules, N = 18; executive program, N = 19)
  • 128 attended one full-day workshop or one module
  • Three sources of participant evaluations: self-critique, peer-review and faculty assessment
  • Pre- and post changes in self-perceived competencies (2.6 to 4.1; P< .001)
  • Increased percentage of URM faculty 1992–2002: 33% to 81%
  • Two graduates completed masters in clinical research
  • Menu of career development programs: 1 year/40 afternoon workshops; 6-week module/half- day per week; executive program; one full-day workshop
  • Workshop module includes effective teaching techniques, manuscript writing, manuscript critiques, grant writing, presentation skills, and curriculum development
Program initiated with a Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) grant, but continued with Title VII grants
Sinkford et al, 200936Program at a consortium of dental schools to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession
  • 46 URM faculty completed program (24 African Americans, 18 Hispanic/Latinos, 4 Native Americans)
  • 28 in program at the time of the publication
  • Evaluations conducted with mentors and mentee satisfaction with the program and perceived impact of the program on choice of academic career path
  • Formal impact of the program not provided
  • Formal faculty mentoring program
  • Academic partnerships
  • Minority supplemental training opportunities
  • Community-based practice and projects
  • URM faculty data collection and reporting
  • Institutional culture and leadership
Funded by W.K. Kellogg Foundation grant
Soto-Greene et al, 200542Development and implementation of a program dedicated to the advancement of Latino medical facultyNumber of faculty not discussedSpecific outcomes not provided; largely descriptive
  • Advisory Committee on Faculty Professional Development aids in the selection of faculty mentors and assists with mentee goal setting
  • Program focuses on proposal writing, how to test hypotheses, how to gather, analyze, and interpret data, and how to draw appropriate conclusions
  • Development of individualized 5-year faculty development plans
  • Funding support of 50% time for 2 years; departments provide support for an additional year
Funded by HRSA; Bureau of Health Professions grant
Viets et al, 200944Development and implementation of a culturally centered mentorship model for ethnic minority faculty at academic health centers9 URM faculty (6 Latino; 3 Native Americans); variety of disciplines (medicine, psychiatry, and public health)
  • Annual debriefing sessions
  • Mentees were highly productive during the program from pre to post: 12 grant applications (200% increase), 37 publications (336% increase), 62 professional presentations (144% increase)
  • Produced special journal issue in Alcoholism and Treatment Quarterly
  • Pilot awards contributed to mentee productivity
  • Biweekly research group meetings for 3 years; provision of technical support in writing and presentation skills
  • Education about community- supported investigations and feedback from a community advisory board regarding research projects
  • Intensive, annual grant writing seminars
  • Monthly symposia with national speakers
  • Financial support to attend research seminars and join research societies
  • Pilot funds for research projects
  • Annual evaluation regarding participation in the mentoring program
Funded by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Yager et al, 200745Development of a program to enhance the research capacity of junior faculty to conduct rigorous mental health research in primary care settings14 Native American and Hispanic mentees per cohort
  • Postprogram funding for the initial mentees: 2 K awards, 1 NARSAD (National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression) award, and 1 minority supplement to an R01
  • Several small university- sponsored awards and industry-sponsored grants
  • Four promoted to associate professor; 3 no longer engaged in research or scholarly activity
  • Weekly group learning seminars
  • Annual institute with participation by recognized senior minority investigators
  • Seminars in basic research methods, writing and management of grant proposals
  • Exportable training curriculum
  • Administrative and technical support in computer programming, data management, analysis, and statistical and psychometric consultation
  • One-on-one mentoring sessions
  • Tutorial sessions to present research study
  • Informal get-togethers and peer support groups
  • Funded by 2 separate NIMH grants
  • Minority Research Infrastructure Support Program and New Mexico Mentorship and Education Program
*Information drawn from review of the literature and organized according to the RE-AIM framework.27