CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED
The goals of this study are to: a) determine the prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPNP) in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2; b) determine the frequency of DPNP in hospitalized patients with type 2 DM in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c; c) identify the dominant DPNP symptoms and the presence of variable risk factors in hospitalized patients; and d) determine the frequency and motor nerve conduction velocity of n. peroneus (electroneuromyography) in relation to the treatment of type 2 DM in hospitalized patients with DPNP.
Material and methods
The study was conducted on 141 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized at the Neurological clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in the period from June 1 2009 to June 1 2010. All patients included in the study were older than 18. Values determined for all subjects are: age, sex, dominant symptoms, duration of type 2 DM, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, motor conduction velocity of n. peroneus, diabetes risk factors (hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, obesity) and DM treatment type.
Of 141 patients with type 2 DM, DPNP was confirmed in 50 patients (35.5%). Men were slightly more represented in the total sample (51.8%). In a sample of patients with DPNP, there were slightly more male patients (n=26; 52%). The average age of patients with DPNP was higher in men (58.3±12.5) (p<0.05). The average age of the patients with DPNP was 55.1± 13.2. Average values of fasting glucose was higher in the group of patients with DPNP (11.032±5.4 mmol/l) compared to patients without DPNP (9.7±2.8 mmol/l) (p<0.05). Mean values of HbA1C were higher in patients with DPNP (8.212±3.3%) compared to patients without DPNP (6.9±2.6%) (p<0.05). Analysis of DM duration between patients with and without DPNP did not show statistically significant difference (chi-square=3.858, p>0.05). In both groups, most of the patients had duration of DM over 10 years, with a minimum duration of DM of 12 months. There are statistically significant differences in applied DM therapy by gender (chi-square=11.939, p<0.05). Hypertension was more frequent in women (79.2%:69.2%), hyperlipidemia was equally presented in both sexes (50%:50%), obesity was more prevalent among women (25%:7.7%), while alcoholism and smoking were more frequent in men (7.7%:0%; 34.6%:8.3%). There are statistically significant differences in the prevalence of risk factors by gender (chi-square=10.013, p<0.05).
The DPNP incidence was higher in patients with longer duration of the disease, but without significant gender differences. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were significantly higher in patients with DPNP compared to patients without DPNP (p<0.05). The dominant symptoms of DPNP were paresthesia (44%) and hypoesthesia (28%). Regarding variable risk factors, the most common were hypertension and hyperlipidemia, without statistical significance in gender distribution, while smoking was significantly more common in men than women (34.6%:8.3%). DPNP was present in 43.2% of men who use insulin therapy, while 54.2% of women with DPNP used oral therapy. The lowest frequency of DPNP was found in patients treated with combined therapy. Motor conduction velocity of n. peroneus was significantly lower in men using insulin therapy and/or combined therapy (p<0.05), whereas in patients on oral therapy there was no significant gender difference. Timely DM type 2 diagnosis with proper treatment and electromyoneurographic monitoring (especially in older men) can prevent onset of diabetic polyneuropathy and contribute to its successful treatment.
Keywords: diabetic polyneuropathy, diabetes mellitus, ENMG, electroneuromyography, HbA1c, inpatient, fasting blood glucose, inpatient