Compared to the population of Bristol at the 2001 Census, respondents were more likely to be female (59% sample vs. 51% Bristol), not in employment (55% vs. 60%), retired (27% vs. 15%) and home owner-occupiers (73% vs. 63%). Ethnic minorities were under-represented (4.4% vs. 6.8%) (Bristol City Council, 2005
shows the mean distance respondents live from their nearest greenspace by quartiles of neighbourhood deprivation. It illustrates that access to greenspace was generally better for those living in more deprived neighbourhoods, with shortest mean distances generally in the most deprived quartile. Exceptions were formal greenspaces and those used for sports, where the reverse was observed.
Greenspace accessibility by deprivation: distance (metres) to nearest greenspace.
shows that trends in perceptions of greenspace access were not in the same direction as the objective measures. Those in the most affluent neighbourhoods were more likely to report that access was “very easy” compared to those in the most deprived areas. Similarly, compared to the most affluent, over three times the percentage of respondents in the most deprived neighbourhoods felt that access was “fairly difficult” or “very difficult”. Similar associations were observed with perceived safety, with those in more deprived neighbourhoods being less than half as likely to report greenspaces being “very safe” and more than twice as likely to report them “fairly unsafe” or “very unsafe”.
Greenspace perceptions, usage, and physical activity by deprivation.
also shows strong disparities in reported greenspace use associated with area deprivation. Despite mean distances being generally shorter, those in the most deprived neighbourhoods were less frequent visitors than the most affluent, being nearly half as likely to report visiting a greenspace at least weekly, and over twice as likely to report less than once a year. There were also gradients in the achievement of physical activity guidelines, with those in the most deprived being the least active.
By comparing the effects of distance for the most and least affluent quartiles, shows the moderating effect of neighbourhood deprivation on the relationship between frequency of use and distance to greenspace. For those in the most affluent quartile, there is evidence of a strong distance decay effect for all greenspace types except those for young people. Compared to the most proximal, those living furthest from each type of greenspace were between 56% and 30% less likely to report visiting at least once a week. Surprisingly there was no evidence of a distance decay effect in the more deprived neighbourhoods, despite these respondents reporting more difficult access and lower visit frequency.
Odds ratios for visiting a greenspace at least once a week, adjusted for age, sex, and self-rated health, by distance to green space type.
shows how neighbourhood deprivation moderates the relationship between physical activity and perceived accessibility, safety, visit frequency, and distance to greenspaces. For all respondents, gradients were apparent with higher reported difficulty of access, higher reported unsafeness, and lower reported visit frequency being associated with lower odds of achieving physical activity guidelines. However, for both safety perceptions and visit frequency, the gradient was strongest for those in the most deprived neighbourhoods. Although there was evidence of reduced achievement of the guidelines amongst those living further from greenspaces, the trends were not statistically significant for either deprivation group.
Odds ratios for achieving physical activity guidelines, adjusted for age, sex, and self-rated health, by perceived greenspace access, safety, frequency of visits, and distance to greenspace type.