1. Amdur R, Bankert EA. Institutional Review Board: Member Handbook. Third Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers; Sudbury, MA: 2011. p. 47.
3. Briggs NC, Schlundt DG, Levine RS, Goldzweig IA, Stinson N, Jr., Warren RC. Seat belt law enforcement and racial disparities in seat belt use. Am J Prev Med. 2006;31(2):135–141. [PubMed] 4. Briggs NC, Schlundt DG, Levine RS, Goldzweig IA, Stinson N, Jr, Warren RC. Seatbelt use among Hispanic ethnic subgroups of National origin. Inj Prev. 2006;12:421–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 6. Moseley KL, Kershaw DB. African American and white disparities in pediatric kidney transplantation in the United States - unfortunate or unjust? Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2012 Jul;21(3):353–65. [PubMed] 7. Byrd WM, Clayton LA. Race, medicine and health care in the United States: A historical survey. JNMA. 2001;93(3 Suppl):11S–34S. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Moore JE, Keidel A. The treatment of early syphilis. I. A plan of treatment for routine use. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1926;39:1–55.
12. Kampmeier RH. The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis. In: Reverby SM, editor. Tuskegee’s Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee syphilis study. University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill: 2000. pp. 193–201.
13. Vonderlehr RA, Clark T, Wenger OC, Heller JR., Jr. Untreated syphilis in the male Negro: A comparative study of treated and untreated cases. JAMA. 1936;107
15. Stone JR. Elderly and older racial/ethnic minority healthcare inequalities: Care, solidarity and action. Cambr Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:342–52. [PubMed] 16. Stone JR. Elderly and older racial/ethnic minority healthcare inequalities: Care, solidarity and action. Cambr Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:344. [PubMed] 17. Stone JR. Elderly and older racial/ethnic minority healthcare inequalities: Care, solidarity and action. Cambr Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:346. [PubMed] 18. Roy B. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment: Biotechnology and the administrative state. JNMA. 1995;87:56–67. Reprinted in Reverby SM, Editor. Tuskegee’s truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee syphilis study. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 2000. Pp.299-317. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Reverby SM. Introduction. More than a metaphor: An overview of the scholarship of the study. In: Reverby SM, editor. Tuskegee’s Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee syphilis study. University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill: 2000. pp. 1–11.
20. Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Bioethics. Oxford University Press; New York: 2001.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Compressed Mortality File 1979-1998. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File CMF 1968-1988, Series 20, No. 2A, 2000 and CMF 1989-1998, Series 20, No. 2E, 2003. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9.html on Mar 4, 2012 6:07:25 PM. 23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Compressed Mortality File 1999-2008. CDC WONDER Online Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999-2008 Series 20 No. 2N 2011. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html on Mar 4, 2012 6:15:06 PM. 26. Smith-Bindman R, Miglioretti DL, Lurie N, Abraham L, Barbash RB, Strzelczyk J, Dignan M, Barlow WE, Beasley CM, Kerlikowske K. Does utilization of screening mammography explain racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer? Ann Intern Med. 2006 Apr 18;144(8):541–53. [PubMed] 27. Geraghty EM, Balsbaugh T, Nuovo J, Tandon S. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess outcome disparities in patients with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. J Am Board Fam Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):88–96. [PubMed]
28. Anselin Luc, Syabri Ibnu, Kho Youngihn. GeoDa: An Introduction to Spatial Data Analysis. Geographical Analysis. 2006;38(1):5–22.
29. Armitage P, Berry G, Matthews JNS., III Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 4th Edition Blackwell Science, Inc; Malden, MA: 2002.
30. Reverby S. The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy: Examining Tuskegee. University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill, NC: 2009.
31. Heintzelman CA. [Accessed March 4, 2012];The Tuskegee syphilis study and its implications for the 21st century. The New Social Worker. 2003 10(4) Located at URL: http://www.socialworker.com/tuskegee.htm and accessable via Google search for “Heintzelman CA. The Tuskegee syphilis study and its implications for the 21st century.”.
32. WHO Syphilis Study Commission Venereal-disease control in the USA. World Health Org.; 1950. Techn. Rep. Ser. 15.
33. Yoon CK. Families emerge as silent victims. In: Reverby SM, editor. Tuskegee’s Truths Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill, NC: 2000. pp. 457–60.
34. Reverby SM. Escaping melodramas: Rethinking the U.S. Public Health Service “infamous” studies in Tuskegee and Guatemala. S.S. Kresge Learning Resource Center Lecture Hall 3. Meharry Medical College; Nashville, TN: Feb 29, 2012. Tuskegee Study.
35. Brandt AM. No magic bullet – a social history of venereal disease in the United State since 1880. Oxford University Press; New York: 1987. Expanded Edition.
36. Cowan FM, French R, Johnson AM. The role and effectiveness of partner notification in STD control: A review. Genitourin Med. 1996;721:247–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 37. Rutherford GW, Woo JM. Contact tracing and the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. JAMA. 1988 Jun 24;259(24):3609–10. [PubMed] 38. Wigfield AS. 27 years of uninterrupted contact tracing: The ‘Tyneside Scheme’ Brit J Vener Dis. 1972;48:37–50. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 39. Guide to Community Preventive Services [Accessed February 2012];Interventions to identify HIV-positive people through partner counseling and referral services. Available at URL: www.thecommunityguide.org/hiv/partnercounseling.html. Last updated: 12/22/2011;
40. Heyman D, editor. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 18th Edition American Public Health Association; Washington, DC: 2004.
41. Becker MS, Joseph JG. AIDS and behavior change to reduce risk: A review. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:394–410. [PubMed] 42. Becker MH, Joseph JG. AIDS and behavior change. Pub Health Rev. 1988;16:1–11. [PubMed] 43. Brandt AM. AIDS in historical perspective: Four lessons from the history of sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:367–71. [PubMed] 44. Marks G, Richardson JL, Maldonado N. Self-disclosure of HIV infection to sexual partners. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:1321–3. [PubMed] 45. Landis, et al. NEJM. McCusker J, Stoddard AM, McCarthy E. The validity of self-reported HIV antibody test results. Am J Public Health. 82:567–9. [PubMed]
46. Smereck GAD. Contact tracing for HIV infection: Policy and program implications from a 50-state survey. In: Fisher DG, Needle R, editors. AIDS and Community-Based Drug Intervention Programs: Evaluation and Outreach. The Haworth Press, Inc; New York: pp. 41–52.
47. Tarasoff v Regents of University of California, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14, 551 P.2d 334 (Calif. 1976) + Sm.
48. Joseph SJ. Dragon within the gates: The once and future AIDS epidemic. Carroll and Graf.; New York: 1992.
49. Joseph SJ. Towards an urban HIV policy. Bull NY Acad Med. 1993 Summer70(1):37–49. [PubMed]
50. Gay Men’s Health Crisis The Body. Mar 12, 1999. GMHC opposes New York state health department’s draft regulations on partner notification.
52. Bell A, Wineberg M. Homosexualities: A study of diversity in men and women. Simon and Shuster; New York: 1978.
53. Selik RM, Castro KG, Pappaioanou M. Racial/ethnic differences in the risk of AIDS in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:1539–45. [PubMed] 54. Millett G, Malebranche D, Mason B, Spikes P. Focusing “down low”: Bisexual black men, HIV risk, and heterosexual transmission. J Nat Med Assoc. 2005;97(7):52S–59S. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 55. Chu SY, Peterman TA, Doll LS, Buehler JW, Curran JW. AIDS in bisexual men in the United States: Epidemiology and transmission to women. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:220–4. [PubMed]
56. Padian NS. Female partners of bisexual men; Paper presented at the CDC Workshop on Bisexuality and AIDS; Atlanta, GA. October, 1989.
57. Hennekens CH, Buring JE. In: Epidemiology in Medicine. Mayrent SL, editor. Little, Brown & Co.; Boston, MA: 1987.
58. Rosenberg HM, Maurer JD, Sorlie PD, et al. Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: a summary of current research, 1999. Vital Health Stat. 1999 Sep;2(128):1–13. [PubMed] 59. Smith DB. The politics of racial disparities: Desegregating the hospitals in Jackson, Mississippi. The Milbank Quarterly. 2005;83(2):247–69. [PubMed]
60. Finkelstein A, McKnight R. What Did Medicare Do? The Initial Impact of Medicare on Mortality and Out of Pocket Medical Spending. Journal of Public Economics. 2008;92:1644–1669.
61. Uhrig JD, Bann CM, McCormack LA, Rudolph N. Beneficiary knowledge of original Medicare and Medicare managed care. Med Care. 2006 Nov;44(11):1020–9. [PubMed] 62. Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D. Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. Am J Public Health. 1997 Sep;87(9):1491–8. [PubMed] 63. Levine RS, Foster JE, Fullilove RE, Fullilove MT, Briggs NT, Hull PC, Husaini BA, Hennekens CH. Black-white inequalities in mortality and life-expectancy, 1933-1999: Implications for Healthy People 2010. Pub Health Rep. 116:474–483. US Bureau of the Census. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
64. Historical Statistics of the United States From Colonial Times to 1970. US Government Printing Office; Washington: 1975.
65. Mechanic D. Disadvantage, inequality and social policy. Health Affairs. 2002;21(2):48–59. [PubMed] 66. Levine RS, Goldzweig I, Kilbourne B, Juarez P. Firearms, youth homicide, and public health. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012;23(1):7–19. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 67. Drowos JC, Levine RS, Hennekens CH. Mortality among young black men: A new American tragedy. Amer J Med. 2013 Forthcoming. [PubMed] 68. Levine RS, Rust G, Aliyu M, Pisu M, Zoorob R, Goldzweig I, Juarez P, Husaini B, Hennekens CH. United States Counties with low black male mortality rates. Amer J Med. 2012 Forthcoming. [PubMed] 69. Brawley OW. Is race really a negative prognostic factor for cancer? JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(14):970–971. [PubMed] 70. Roberts D. Debating the cause of health disparities: Implications for bioethics and racial equality. Camb Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:332–341. 333. [PubMed] 71. Roberts D. Debating the cause of health disparities: Implications for bioethics and racial equality. Camb Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:332–341. [PubMed] 72. Gravlee CC, Mulligan CJ. Re: Racial Disparities in Cancer Survival Among Randomized Clinical Trials of the Southwest Oncology Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(4):280. [PubMed] 73. Gravlee CC. How race becomes biology: Embodiment of social inequality. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;139:49–57. [PubMed]
74. Barr DA. Health Disparities in the United States: Social Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Health. Johns Hopkins University Press; Baltimore, MD: 2008.
75. Bach PB, Pham HH, Schrag D, Tate RC, Hargraves JL. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. New Engl J Med. 2004;351:575–584. [PubMed]
76. Krieger N. The science and epidemiology of racism and health: Racial/ethnic categories, biological expressions of racism, and the embodiment of inequality— and ecosocial perspective. In: Whitmarsh I, Jones DS, editors. What’s the Use of Race? Modern Governance and the Biology of Difference. MIT Press; Cambridge, MA: 2010. pp. 225–255.
77. Williams DR, Collins C. Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports. 2001;116:404–416. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 78. Roberts D. Debating the cause of health disparities: Implications for bioethics and racial equality. Camb Quart Healthc Ethics. 2012;21:332–341. 334. [PubMed] 81. Hennekens CH, DeMets D. Statistical association and causation: contributions of different types of evidence. JAMA. 2011;305(11):1134–5. [PubMed] 82. Hahn RA, Bilukha O, Crosby A, Fullilove MT, Liberman A, Moscicki E, Snyder S, Tuma F, Briss PA. Firearms laws and the reduction of violence: A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(2S1):40–71. [PubMed] 83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Compressed Mortality File. 1979-1998 CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File DMF 1968-1988, Series 20, No. 2A, 2000 and CMF1979-1988, Series 20, No. 2E, 2003. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9.html on May 30, 2012 10:29:59 AM.
84. King MLK., Jr. “Letter from Birmingham Jail” in King MLK Jr. Why We Can’t Wait. Harper & Row; New York: 1964.