PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of microrevMicrobiol Mol Biol Rev ArchivePermissionsJournals.ASM.orgMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Microbiol Rev. 1991 June; 55(2): 259–287.
PMCID: PMC372814

Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

Abstract

The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (6.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arnold RG, DiChristina TJ, Hoffmann MR. Inhibitor studies of dissimilative Fe(III) reduction by Pseudomonas sp. strain 200 ("Pseudomonas ferrireductans") Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Aug;52(2):281–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Defer N, Sastugue B, Sabatier MM, Kruh J. Effect of triiodothyronine and of cytosol on the hormone binding to rat liver nuclear non histone proteins. Biochimie. 1976;58(7):881–883. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Balch WE, Fox GE, Magrum LJ, Woese CR, Wolfe RS. Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol Rev. 1979 Jun;43(2):260–296. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barker HA. Amino acid degradation by anaerobic bacteria. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:23–40. [PubMed]
  • Baur ME, Hayes JM, Studley SA, Walter MR. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia. Econ Geol. 1985;80:270–282. [PubMed]
  • Erikssen J, Enger SC. The effect of smoking on selected coronary heart disease risk factors in middle-aged men. Acta Med Scand. 1978;203(1-2):27–30. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bisschop A, Boonstra J, Sips HJ, Konings WN. Respiratory chain linked ferricy anide reduction drives active transport in membrane vesicles from Bacillus subtilis. FEBS Lett. 1975 Dec 1;60(1):11–15. [PubMed]
  • Blakemore RP. Magnetotactic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1982;36:217–238. [PubMed]
  • Boonstra J, Sips HJ, Konings WN. Active transport by membrane vesicles from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli energized by electron transfer to ferricyanide and chlorate. Eur J Biochem. 1976 Oct 1;69(1):35–44. [PubMed]
  • Brock TD, Gustafson J. Ferric iron reduction by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Oct;32(4):567–571. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BROMFIELD SM. Reduction of ferric compounds by soil bacteria. J Gen Microbiol. 1954 Aug;11(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Stephens RW, Ghosh P, Taylor TK. The characterisation and function of the polysaccharidases of human synovial fluid in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Jul 14;399(1):101–112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Canfield DE. Reactive iron in marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 1989;53:619–632. [PubMed]
  • Champine JE, Goodwin S. Acetate catabolism in the dissimilatory iron-reducing isolate GS-15. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(8):2704–2706. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siltanen E, Koponen M, Kokko A, Engström B, Reponen J. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 (Suppl 1):19–31. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dailey HA, Jr, Lascelles J. Reduction of iron and synthesis of protoheme by Spirillum itersonii and other organisms. J Bacteriol. 1977 Feb;129(2):815–820. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • De Castro AF, Ehrlich HL. Reduction of iron oxide minerals by a marine Bacillus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1970;36(3):317–327. [PubMed]
  • de Vrind JP, Boogerd FC, de Vrind-de Jong EW. Manganese reduction by a marine Bacillus species. J Bacteriol. 1986 Jul;167(1):30–34. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Radford AJ. Mycobacterium ulcerans in Australia. Aust N Z J Med. 1975 Apr;5(2):162–169. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ehrlich HL, Yang SH, Mainwaring JD., Jr Bacteriology of manganese nodules. VI. Fate of copper, nickel, cobalt, and iron during bacterial and chemical reduction of the manganese (IV). Z Allg Mikrobiol. 1973;13(1):39–48. [PubMed]
  • Fassbinder JW, Stanjek H, Vali H. Occurrence of magnetic bacteria in soil. Nature. 1990 Jan 11;343(6254):161–163. [PubMed]
  • Aoshima H, Kajiwara T, Hatanaka A, Hatano H. Electron spin resonance studies on the lipoxygenase reaction by spin trapping and spin labelling methods. J Biochem. 1977 Dec;82(6):1559–1565. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frankel RB, Blakemore RP. Magnetite and magnetotaxis in microorganisms. Bioelectromagnetics. 1989;10(3):223–237. [PubMed]
  • Gaines CG, Lodge JS, Arceneaux JE, Byers BR. Ferrisiderophore reductase activity associated with an aromatic biosynthetic enzyme complex in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1981 Nov;148(2):527–533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghiorse WC, Ehrlich HL. Effects of seawater cations and temperature on manganese dioxide-reductase activity in a marine Bacillus. Appl Microbiol. 1974 Nov;28(5):785–792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghiorse WC, Ehrlich HL. Electron transport components of the MnO2 reductase system and the location of the terminal reductase in a marine Bacillus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Jun;31(6):977–985. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gorby YA, Beveridge TJ, Blakemore RP. Characterization of the bacterial magnetosome membrane. J Bacteriol. 1988 Feb;170(2):834–841. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • GUNNER HB, ALEXANDER M. ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM. J Bacteriol. 1964 Jun;87:1309–1316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dachman AH, Nichols JB, Patrick DH, Lichtenstein JE. Natural history of the obstructed rabbit appendix: observations with radiography, sonography, and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Feb;148(2):281–284. [PubMed]
  • Lascelles J, Burke KA. Reduction of ferric iron by L-lactate and DL-glycerol-3-phosphate in membrane preparations from Staphylococcus aureus and interactions with the nitrate reductase system. J Bacteriol. 1978 May;134(2):585–589. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fischer GW, Kenyon CF, Ray CG. Neonatal type 2 herpes simplex encephalitis in an identical twin. Scand J Infect Dis. 1976;8(3):213–215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Baum JD, Robertson NR. Immediate effects of alkaline infusion in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1975 Aug;87(2):255–261. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wadzinski AM, Ribbons DW. Oxidation of C1 compounds by particulate fractions from Methylococcus capsulatus: properties of methanol oxidase and methanol dehydrogenase. J Bacteriol. 1975 Jun;122(3):1364–1374. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wattenberg LW. Inhibitors of chemical carcinogenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 1978;26:197–226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lock MR, Katz DR, Parks A, Thomson JP. Perianal Paget's disease. Postgrad Med J. 1977 Dec;53(626):768–772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen JL, Weiss KR, Kupfermann I. Motor control of buccal muscles in Aplysia. J Neurophysiol. 1978 Jan;41(1):157–180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Karjalainen S, Mäkinen KK. Phosphoric monoester hydrolase-like activity in the odontoblast-predentine region of intact and carious human teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 1977;22(8-9):507–510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chen TR, Dorotinsky C, Macy M, Hay R. Cell identity resolved. Nature. 1989 Jul 13;340(6229):106–106. [PubMed]
  • Miller TL, Wolin MJ. A serum bottle modification of the Hungate technique for cultivating obligate anaerobes. Appl Microbiol. 1974 May;27(5):985–987. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Myers CR, Nealson KH. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor. Science. 1988 Jun 3;240(4857):1319–1321. [PubMed]
  • Myers CR, Nealson KH. Respiration-linked proton translocation coupled to anaerobic reduction of manganese(IV) and iron(III) in Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1. J Bacteriol. 1990 Nov;172(11):6232–6238. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Obuekwe CO, Westlake DW. Effects of medium composition on cell pigmentation, cytochrome content, and ferric iron reduction in a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from crude oil. Can J Microbiol. 1982 Aug;28(8):989–992. [PubMed]
  • Obuekwe CO, Westlake DW, Cook FD. Effect of nitrate on reduction of ferric iron by a bacterium isolated from crude oil. Can J Microbiol. 1981 Jul;27(7):692–697. [PubMed]
  • Russell RC. Primary nursing. Process of implementation--attitudes and approaches. NLN Publ. 1977;(52-1695):53–62. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ottow JC. Evaluation of iron-reducing bacteria in soil and the physiological mechanism of iron-reduction in Aerobacter aerogenes. Z Allg Mikrobiol. 1968;8(5):441–443. [PubMed]
  • Ottow JC. Bacterial mechanisms of gley formation in artificially submerged soil. Nature. 1970 Jan 3;225(5227):103–103. [PubMed]
  • Ottow JC. Selection, characterization and iron-reducing capacity of nitrate reductaseless (nit-) mutants of iron-reducing bacteria. Z Allg Mikrobiol. 1970;10(1):55–62. [PubMed]
  • Valdés E, Fernández del Castillo C, Gutiérrez R, Larrea F, Medina M, Pérez-Palacios G. Endocrine studies and successful treatment in a patient with true hermaphroditism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1979 May;91(1):184–192. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pfennig N. Metabolic diversity among the dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria. Albert Jan Kluyver memorial lecture. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1989 Aug;56(2):127–138. [PubMed]
  • Short KA, Blakemore RP. Iron respiration-driven proton translocation in aerobic bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug;167(2):729–731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Honma S, Kanbekawa A. [The metabolism of 1-tertiary-butylamino-3-(2,3-dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanol (D-32), a new beta-blocker agent. II. Blood level, distribution, and structure of its metabolites in bile (author's transl)]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1975 Jun;95(6):680–689. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sugio T, Mizunashi W, Inagaki K, Tano T. Purification and some properties of sulfur:ferric ion oxidoreductase from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J Bacteriol. 1987 Nov;169(11):4916–4922. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Patel NT, Holoubek V. Protein composition of nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles isolated from liver of rats in the early stages of feeding of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and from hepatoma induced by the same carcinogen. Chem Biol Interact. 1977 Dec;19(3):303–316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thauer RK, Möller-Zinkhan D, Spormann AM. Biochemistry of acetate catabolism in anaerobic chemotrophic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1989;43:43–67. [PubMed]
  • Loock R. Criteria for the dispensary care of elder workers. Z Alternsforsch. 1979;34(3):205–209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trimble RB, Ehrlich HL. Bacteriology of manganese nodules. IV. Induction of an MnO2-reductase system in a marine bacillus. Appl Microbiol. 1970 Jun;19(6):966–972. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor P. Drug-biomolecule interactions: mechanism of ligand interactions with carbonic anhydrase studied by magnetic resonance relaxation and rapid reaction methods. J Pharm Sci. 1975 Mar;64(3):501–507. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turekian KK, Bertine KK. Deposition of molybdenum and uranium along the major ocean ridge systems. Nature. 1971 Jan 22;229(5282):250–251. [PubMed]
  • Walker JC. Suboxic diagenesis in banded iron formations. Nature. 1984 May 24;309:340–342. [PubMed]
  • Walker JC, Brimblecombe P. Iron and sulfur in the pre-biologic ocean. Precambrian Res. 1985;28:205–222. [PubMed]
  • Walker JC. Was the Archaean biosphere upside down? Nature. 1987 Oct 22;329:710–712. [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiological Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)