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The standard shotgun proteomics data analysis strategy relies on searching MS/MS spectra against a context-independent protein sequence database derived from the complete genome sequence of an organism. Because transcriptome sequence analysis (RNA-Seq) promises an unbiased and comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, we reason that a sample-specific protein database derived from RNA-Seq data can better approximate the real protein pool in the sample and thus improve protein identification. In this study, we have developed a two-step strategy for building sample-specific protein databases from RNA-Seq data. First, the database size is reduced by eliminating unexpressed or lowly expressed genes according to transcript quantification. Secondly, high-quality nonsynonymous coding single nucleotide variations (SNVs) are identified based on RNA-Seq data, and corresponding protein variants are added to the database. Using RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics data from two colorectal cancer cell lines SW480 and RKO, we demonstrated that customized protein sequence databases could significantly increase the sensitivity of peptide identification, reduce ambiguity in protein assembly, and enable the detection of known and novel peptide variants. Thus, sample-specific databases from RNA-Seq data can enable more sensitive and comprehensive protein discovery in shotgun proteomics studies.
Among different strategies for proteome profiling, the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based shotgun proteomics technology is the most effective option for large-scale protein identification in complex samples1. In a typical shotgun proteomics experiment, proteins are enzymatically digested into peptides, separated by liquid chromatography (LC), and identified by MS/MS. Next, MS/MS data acquired from the analyses are processed to identify peptides that gave rise to observed spectra, and proteins are inferred based on identified peptides. Protein sequence database searching is the most commonly used technique for the identification of peptides following the acquisition of MS/MS spectra. Database search engines have been developed for this purpose, including Sequest2, Mascot3, X!Tandem4, and MyriMatch5, among many others. Protein sequence databases from public resources such as RefSeq, Uniprot, IPI and ENSEMBL are usually used as reference databases for a search.
Although convenient for routine use, these public databases are collections of all known and predicted proteins in a species and may not closely represent the real protein pool in a specific sample. According to the current annotation in ENSEMBL, the number of proteins encoded by the human genome is more than 45,000. Presumably, only a fraction of these proteins are expressed in a specific sample, and the number of expressed proteins may vary substantially in different samples. Larger databases yield more distraction, lower signal to noise ratio, and reduced sensitivity under search criteria needed to maintain a low false discovery rate6. Ramakrishnan et al.7 incorporated mRNA concentration measured by microarray as prior knowledge of protein presence to improve protein identification in shotgun proteomics experiments. Although promising, this method makes an assumption of high correlation between mRNA and protein abundance, which might not be realistic8.
Meanwhile, databases employed in proteomics searches are usually incomplete with respect to sequence variation information, such as Single Nucleotide Variations (SNVs) and RNA-splice and –editing variants. These genomic variations are closely related to phenotypic variations or pathogenesis. Without taking them into account, proteomic studies may fail to detect novel, important protein forms. Efforts have been made to enable the identification of protein sequence variations through incorporating genomic variation information from databases such as dbSNP and COSMIC9–12_ENREF_3 and inferring alternative splice variants from the Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) database13–15. These approaches provide an opportunity to detect protein variants. However, they may lead to significantly increased database size and higher risk of false positive identifications10.
In order to gain a complete understanding of cellular systems at both genomic and proteomic levels, many research groups have started to apply RNA and protein profiling technologies in parallel to the same samples16–18. Although protein abundance can only be partially explained by mRNA concentration8, mRNA expression is clearly a prerequisite for protein expression. The emerging high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology offers an opportunity to obtain transcript expression levels and sequence variations simultaneously. _ENREF_1Because RNA-Seq promises an unbiased and comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, we reason that a sample-specific protein sequence database derived from RNA-Seq data can better represent the real protein pool in a sample and thus improve protein identification in shotgun proteomics studies.
Despite their obvious potential, RNA-Seq-derived customized databases have seen limited use in proteomics searching. There are several important issues to be addressed before this promising approach can be fully adopted. First, how can we effectively reduce the database size by incorporating RNA-Seq data? Secondly, how can we sift through millions of candidate SNVs to find reliable non-synonymous coding SNVs? Thirdly, how much performance-gain can we achieve using this approach? In addition to benchmarking the performance-gain, we need to detect the extent of protein loss associated with this technique.
In this study, we investigated the above questions using matched RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics data from two colorectal cancer cell lines: SW480 and RKO. We demonstrated that customized protein sequence databases could significantly increase the sensitivity in peptide identification, reduce ambiguity in protein assembly, and enable the detection of known and novel peptide variants. Based on the results, we have proposed a workflow for constructing sample-specific protein sequence databases from RNA-Seq data for more sensitive and sequence variant-inclusive proteomic studies.
Two colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and RKO, were used in this study. Proteomic analyses were conducted in the Ayers Institute at the Vanderbilt University. Detailed information about the cell lines and the proteomics experiments have been described in our previous paper11. mzML files for this data set were downloaded from ProteomeCommons.org Tranche using the following hash:
Single read RNA-Seq data were generated for SW480 and RKO using the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (Illumina GAIIx) platform by the Vanderbilt Genome Sciences Resource. The read length was 43 bp. Total RNA was isolated from the cells using the RNeasy minikit from Qiagen. mRNA was purified from total RNA using the Oligotex mRNA Mini Kit. The mRNA samples were run on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer using the Pico Chip to assess ribosomal contamination. An input of 100 ng was used following the Illumina mRNA-Seq protocol. The RNA was chemically fragmented and converted to ds-cDNA. The ds-cDNA went through end-repair, 3′ dA-tailing, and adapter ligation. Prior to PCR enrichment, samples were separated on a 2% agarose E-gel at 120V for 10min. A gel region was excised at ~200bp +/- 25bp and purified using the QIAGEN Gel Extraction Kit. The purified cDNA templates were enriched by PCR using 15 cycles, purified using QIA quick PCR Kit, eluting in 30ul EB. The library was validated for size and concentration by running on the Agilent Bioanalyzer DNA 1000 chip. The libraries were normalized to 10 nM, denatured, and 8 pM was loaded into the Illumina Cluster Station for cluster generation. The flow cell was loaded onto the Illumina GAIIx and the SR-36 recipe was used.
Microarray gene expression data for SW480 and RKO were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with the GEO accession number GSE10843 (http://www.be-md.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE10843). This data set was generated using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array and contains tens of cancer cell lines, including duplicates for both SW480 and RKO cell lines.
We used the Tophat software19 to align reads to the human reference genome (hg18, ENSEMBL v54) in a spliced mode. Using the default settings in Tophat, up to 2 mismatches were allowed in the alignment. Among the 29,553,736 reads in the SW480 data set, 86% were mapped to the genome. Among the 28,968,492 reads in the RKO data set, 87% were mapped to the genome. SAMtools20 were used to convert the resulting SAM files to binary format (bam), which were then imported to the R software environment (http://www.r-project.org/) using the Rsamtools package (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.6/bioc/html/Rsamtools.html). RPKM (Reads Per Kilo base per Million mapped reads)21 was calculated to represent the expression level for each transcript. _ENREF_4The pileup algorithm in SAMtools was used to generate a list of candidate SNVs based on bam files. We set additional filters (coverage, mapping quality and consensus quality) to control the SNV quality and retained only nonsynonymous protein coding SNVs. In this process, we used the biomaRt package22 in R to retrieve transcript and protein information from the ENSEMBL v54 database. The Ensemble BioMart database (http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview) was used to match accession numbers in RNA-Seq, microarray, and proteomic data.
We applied the Affymetrix MAS5 algorithm to obtain a present/absent call for each probe set. For each cell line, probe sets with consistent present or absent calls in both replicates were identified and related to RPKM values for their corresponding transcripts.
Three database search engines, MyriMatch5 (v1.6.63), Sequest2 (TurboSEQUEST v.27 (rev. 12)), and X!Tandem4 (CYCLONE v2010.12.01.1) were used in this study. All cysteines were assumed to be carbamidomethylated and methionines were allowed to be oxidized. We used the semi-tryptic mode for database search. One missed cleavage was permitted. The configurations for all search engines are provided in Supplemental File 1. The IDPicker software (v22.214.171.124)23 _ENREF_10was used for protein assembly. IDPicker applies parsimony analysis in protein assembly to derive a minimum list of proteins that could account for all observed peptides, and proteins that could not be distinguished due to shared peptide sequences were grouped together as an indiscernible protein group24. Ambiguous identifications that mapped to three or more peptide sequences with equal scores were excluded. Minimum peptide length was set to 6. Peptide identifications were filtered to achieve a False Discovery Rate of 5% for peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We only retained proteins with at least two distinct peptides. The msConvert25 tool was used to generate an mzML file for all unassigned spectra after searching against the protein sequence database derived from the RNA-Seq data.
In any cell, only a subset of genes is transcribed. Moreover, genes that are transcribed at a very low level produce limited amounts of proteins, which thus are likely to be undetectable by shotgun proteomics. RNA-Seq analysis provides a good estimate for the absolute expression level of transcripts through the RPKM measurement21, a metric that may be used to eliminate unexpressed or lowly expressed genes from a protein sequence database. Thus, an initial task is to identify an RPKM threshold indicating sufficient transcript abundance to predict probable detection of corresponding protein products by shotgun proteomics techniques.
We first investigated RPKM threshold selection in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 (Figure 1A). Specifically, we compared the distributions of the logarithmic scale RPKM values for all detected transcripts by RNA-Seq, genes analyzed by microarray, and all identified proteins when searching MS/MS spectra against the ENSEMBL v54 human protein database. As shown in Figure 1A, RPKMs for all RNA-Seq detected transcripts followed a bimodal distribution (green curve), which was likely caused by two distinct transcript populations: unexpressed transcripts (background noise) and expressed transcripts in the sample (signal). To further explore this possibility, we overlaid the distributions for “present” and “absent” transcripts as determined by microarray analysis on the RNA-Seq distribution. The “present” transcripts showed a unimodal distribution (solid blue curve), which correlated well with the major peak in RNA-Seq. 95% of the “present” transcripts had a RPKM value greater than 0.616 (dashed black line). This RPKM value seemed to provide a reasonably good separation between the two peaks in the RNA-Seq distribution and could serve as an optional threshold to distinguish expressed transcripts from unexpressed ones. Interestingly, the “absent” transcripts showed a bimodal distribution (dashed blue curve) similar to RNA-Seq, suggesting that many of these transcripts were actually expressed but incorrectly classified as “absent” by microarray.
For transcripts that encode proteins detected by shotgun proteomics, the distribution was very similar to that of the microarray “present” transcripts, except for a small shift to larger RPKM values, suggesting that highly expressed transcripts are more likely to be detected by shotgun proteomics. The distribution also showed a sharp increase in protein identification beyond RPKM 2 (dashed red line), which led us to empirically choose this value as an optional threshold to eliminate low-abundance transcripts that are likely to be undetectable by shotgun proteomics.
Using the above two threshold options (Microarray95 and RPKM2), we constructed reduced protein sequence databases by eliminating proteins whose corresponding transcript expression was below the selected threshold. The regular ENSEMBL protein database contains 47,509 proteins. Applying the Microarray95 and RPKM2 thresholds from the SW480 data set reduced databases to 31,124 and 24,951 proteins, respectively.
To benchmark the performance advantage of the reduced databases, we compared the search results from three databases (ENSEMBL v54, with Microarray95 and RPKM2 thresholds) for the SW480 data set. As shown in Table 1, both reduced databases performed better than the regular database, and the database corresponding to the RPKM2 cutoff had the best performance. As compared to the regular database, the RPKM2 database for SW480 increased the number of identifiable spectra by 896 (5.0%), the number of identified peptides by 397 (6.1%), and the number of indiscernible protein groups by 81 (5.9%).
To test whether the findings could be generalized to other data sets, we applied the same analysis procedure to the RKO data set. The RPKM distribution plot for RNA-Seq, microarray, and shotgun proteomics showed similar patterns as observed for SW480 (Figure 1B). Reduced databases for RKO contained 28,756 and 23,172 protein sequences using the Microarray95 and RPKM2 thresholds, respectively. We searched these databases as well as the regular database with the proteomics data. Consistent with above observations, the RPKM2 database performed the best among the three databases (Table 1), with the total number of identifiable spectra increased by 1055 (4.9%), the number of identified peptides increased by 533 (5.8%), and the number of indiscernible protein groups increased by 84 (4.1%) as compared to the regular database. Application of an RPKM threshold for transcript abundance thus reduces the size of the reference protein sequence database and improves the sensitivity of peptide identification in shotgun proteomics.
Although the reduced RPKM2 database increased the number of identified indiscernible protein groups by about 5% in both cell lines, the total number of all proteins in these groups did not increase proportionally (Table 1). Increased sensitivity in peptide identification may lead to better discrimination power in protein assembly and thus may remove suspicious proteins for more parsimonious protein reporting.
Figure 2A uses a real example to illustrate this possibility. Using the regular database, an indiscernible protein group with four proteins was identified with four supporting peptides. With the reduced RPKM2 database, we identified an additional peptide uniquely mapped to one of the four proteins. The parsimony algorithm implemented in IDPicker24 eliminated the other three proteins and reduced the size of this protein group to one.
To examine this effect at a global level, we compared the sizes of the indiscernible protein groups identified with the regular database and the RPKM2 database. While the numbers of smaller protein groups (1~5 proteins per group) increased in both cell lines, the numbers of protein groups with more than 5 proteins decreased considerably in both cell lines (Figure 2B). These results demonstrate that the reduced database can reduce ambiguity in protein assembly.
Detection of variant peptides is an important potential advantage of RNA-Seq-derived databases. To evaluate this possibility, we generated customized variation-inclusive protein sequence databases for proteomics search. Initial RNA-Seq data analysis identified over a million candidate SNVs in both cell lines. Based on parameter settings reported in previous studies26, we set up a pipeline to filter for high-quality nonsynonymous SNVs in protein coding regions with an RPKM greater than 2. Figure 3 illustrates the pipeline filtering process, the yields of SNV identifications and reduction ratios at each step with data from both cell lines (Figure 3).
Using the pipeline, we detected 3,501 nonsynonymous SNVs in SW480 and 3,995 in RKO. Of these, 2,032 (58.0%) SNVs in SW480 and 2,091 (52.3%) SNVs in RKO were found in dbSNP54. The nonsynonymous SNVs were mapped to 5,437 proteins in RKO and 4,838 proteins in SW480. These protein sequences with SNVs were added to the RPKM2 protein database to create customized databases for SW480 and RKO, respectively.
The customized databases comprised 29,789 entries in SW480 and 28,609 in RKO. Proteomics data sets were then searched against these databases. The numbers of identified spectra, peptides and protein groups were 18,760, 6,958 and 1,467, respectively, in SW480. In RKO, the numbers were 22,623 spectra, 9,728 peptides and 2,129 protein groups (Table 1). A total of 33 unique variant peptides were identified in SW480, of which 23 (69.7%) were supported by dbSNP54. In RKO cells, 43 unique peptides were detected, of which 30 (69.8%) were supported by dbSNP54. A complete list of variant peptides and related information can be found in Supplementary Files 2 and 3. The high dbSNP support rate for the identified variant peptides suggests high reliability of our variant peptide detection pipeline.
As somatic mutations play important roles in cancer, we further searched for candidate somatic mutations in these colorectal cancer cell lines by removing known variations listed in the dbSNP database. This identified 10 SNV-containing peptides in SW480 and 14 in RKO (Table 2). Among variations in these peptides, the TP53P309S mutation is catalogued in the COSMIC database and has been reported as a gain of function mutation that contributes to increased cell proliferation and resistance to anticancer drugs in SW48027, 28. The NLE1Q319K mutation found in RKO is also catalogued in COSMIC but has not been reported in the RKO cell line.
To investigate the potential functional impact of the newly identified candidate somatic mutations, we used the MutationAssessor29 software to calculate a functional impact score (FIS) for each amino acid substitution. The calculation is based on evolutionary conservation of the affected amino acid in protein homologs. About half of the candidate mutations that could be analyzed by MutationAssessor are of medium (FIS > 1) or high (FIS > 2) impact to proteins, while the average FIS for all SNPs detected in this study was about 0. The HSP90AA1D393N mutation in RKO is of particular interest. The mutation had a very high FIS of 3.24 and the protein was highly expressed in RKO, as indicated by a total spectral count of 153. HSP90AA1 is critical for correct conformation and stability of key oncogenic proteins involved in signal transduction pathways leading to cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis30, 31_ENREF_28. Over-expression of HSP90AA1 has been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer32, 33_ENREF_28. In addition to D393N, HSP90AA1 harbored another mutation N504D, which also had a relatively high FIS (1.64). Besides TP53 in SW480 and HSP90AA1 in RKO, many other genes listed in Table 2, including those harboring mutations with medium or high functional impact, have known roles in cancer.
The above results clearly demonstrated that customized databases derived from RNA-Seq significantly improve protein identification in shotgun proteomics. However, an equally important question is whether we have missed certain proteins by applying this procedure. To identify proteins that might have been missed due to the empirical cutoff selection, we re-searched unassigned spectra for each cell line against all ENSEMBL proteins with corresponding RPKM values less than 2 in the cell line. The databases contained 22,558 sequences for SW480 and 24,337 for RKO. The search results are shown in Supplementary File 4. We rescued 74 peptides in SW480 and 49 in RKO, corresponding to 23 indiscernible protein groups in both cell lines. They corresponded to 0.7% of the identifiable spectra in SW480 and 0.3% in RKO with a regular database search.
Interestingly, half of the rescued proteins in SW480 (30 out of 59) and one third in RKO (18 out of 66) were histones. This may relate to the use of the polyA RNA enrichment Oligotex mRNA Kits in mRNA preparation for RNA-Seq analysis. Histone mRNAs are known to lack polyA tails and their 3′ ends have a stem-loop structure, hence the commonly used RNA-Seq protocol cannot capture this class of genes 34, 35. According to the IDPicker report, except for the histones, all other missed proteins had less than 3 spectral counts, which may be explained by either low-abundance or spurious identification. Therefore, adding histones to a customized database should address the primary limitation of the RNA-Seq based database search approach.
Based on above results, we proposed a workflow for deriving customized protein sequence databases from RNA-Seq data (Figure 4). A customized database is generated in two major steps. First, an RPKM threshold is selected to eliminate proteins with insufficient corresponding transcript abundance, because they are likely to be undetectable by shotgun proteomics. The threshold can be empirically selected by plotting the RPKM distribution for all identified proteins when searching MS/MS spectra against the regular protein database and then identifying an RPKM value above which a sharp increase in protein identification is observed. Secondly, high-quality nonsynonymous coding SNVs are identified based on RNA-Seq data and corresponding proteins are added to the customized database. The easiest way to ensure compatibility with different search engines is to keep the entire variant containing protein sequence as an entry. Related variation information, such as variation position, change status and corresponding dbSNP ID (if available), should be included in the sequence header for easy interpretation of the search result. Finally, because RNA-Seq usually fails to detect histones, these proteins should be added to the customized databases. The database should also append reverse sequences as decoy sequences for FDR estimation.
Applying this workflow resulted in a customized database for SW480 with 29,894 proteins and one for RKO with 28,713 proteins, each including 105 histone proteins. Searching shotgun proteomics data from these two cell lines against the customized databases led to the identification of 6,984 peptides in SW480 and 9,730 peptides in RKO, which corresponded to 7.1% and 6.0% increase respectively as compared to search results from the regular database. Finally, we tested the customized databases with two other popular search tools, X!tandem and Sequest, and observed similar level of improvement (Table 3).
Numerous studies have reported that RNA-Seq is superior to microarrays to characterize transcriptomes36, 37_ENREF_23_ENREF_23. This sequencing technology not only can accurately measure the abundance of transcripts, but also can detect sequence variations at the same time 38, thus providing a more complete view of the transcriptome. Meanwhile, it is increasingly clear that mRNA and protein expression data are complementary. Concurrent measurement of both provides a better understanding of complex biological systems18, 39–42 and provides a strong rationale to integrate RNA-Seq data into proteomics studies.
Previous integrative analyses focused primarily on the correlation between steady state mRNA and protein abundance or between induced changes in mRNA and protein expression8, 18, 39–42. Although technology advancements have made these comparisons possible on an increasingly large scale, protein identification and quantification remains the limiting factor in such studies18. We addressed this challenge by asking how protein identification can be improved through integrating transcriptomic data. To this end, we have developed a workflow that creates sample-specific protein sequence databases from RNA-Seq data to facilitate protein identification in shotgun proteomics.
We first demonstrated that use of an RPKM threshold to eliminate entries for low-abundance and unexpressed genes from a protein sequence database could improve the sensitivity of peptide identification and reduce ambiguity in protein assembly. Besides protein identification, spectral count data derived from shotgun proteomics has provided a valuable means for the quantification of protein abundance and detection of differentially expression proteins43, 44. Because a reduced database could increase the number of identifiable spectra by more than 5%, it is expected to have impact on spectral counting based quantitative analysis, especially for lowly expressed proteins. This aspect will be investigated in a future study.
A reduced database relies on the selection of an RPKM threshold. Various approaches have been proposed for setting the RPKM level corresponding to detectable mRNA expression. Ramsköld et al. used the expression level of intergenic region as the background to choose a threshold to define expression45. Gan et al. set a RPKM threshold that allows the detection of 99% of the “present” transcripts as determined by matched microarray study46. Because shotgun proteomics is obviously less sensitive than RNA-Seq, we selected a higher RPKM threshold that would allow detectable protein expression. A threshold determined from the RPKM distribution for all proteins identified through searching against the regular protein database could maximize the numbers of identifiable spectra and peptide identifications. Although easy to implement, dichotomizing data using a selected threshold usually results in a loss of information. Future work may directly incorporate RPKM data as Bayesian prior information in database search tools. Thus, a lower prior likelihood can be given to peptides derived from transcripts with lower RPKM values.
We also showed that incorporating SNVs identified in RNA-Seq into a protein sequence database could effectively enable variant peptide identification. In a recently published study, we tackled the same problem using a different approach, namely integrating all known variations from dbSNP, COSMIC, and other genomic mutation databases to the regular protein sequence database11. Because the same proteomics data sets were used for both studies, we were able to perform a direct comparison between the two approaches. The current approach identified 33 and 43 variant peptides in SW480 and RKO respectively. In comparison, the previous approach only identified 20 and 27 variant peptides in SW480 and RKO respectively. Among the variant peptides identified in the previous study, 6 and 15 were missed in the current study. A closer look at the data found that these could be explained by the elimination of peptides from proteins supported by a single peptide in this study, by the stringent filter used for SNV calling, by a lack of read coverage for the position, and by a few possible false discoveries in the previous study. This result suggested that, although the sample-specific database identified significantly more variant peptides, its performance could be further improved with increased read depth in RNA-Seq experiments and refined SNV calling algorithms. On the other hand, the previous approach remains an effective option when matched RNA-Seq data is not available.
Detecting variants at the peptide level may seem redundant when they are already found at the transcript level. However, protein-level data can provide complementary information on the functional consequence of the mutations. In order to test whether nonsynonymous coding SNVs may affect protein stability at a large scale, we examined the detectable ratio for normal and variant peptides. To estimate the total number of peptides, the protein sequences were in silico trypsin digested without allowing for missed enzyme cleavages and resultant peptides with less than 6 amino acids were excluded. In SW480, 33 out of 3041 variant peptides were detected, resulting in a ratio of 1.1%. The number in RKO was 1.2% (43 out of 3503). In comparison, the detectable ratio for normal peptides based on the same estimation was 2.0% for SW480 and 3.0% for RKO. This result showed that variations indeed led to lower detection ratio, possibly due to reduced protein stability.
However, not all variant proteins have accelerated degradation; some variants may have increased protein stability and expression levels. This is particularly true for gain of function mutations in cancer, because protein expression is required for performing the newly acquired function. In this case, proteomics data can serve as an efficient functional filter for the biologically important variations, such as the well-known TP53P309S mutation and the newly identified HSP90AA1D393N mutation in this study. One great challenge presented by next generation sequencing technology is how to sift through tens of thousands of SNVs to identify a manageable number for further experimental investigation. One obvious approach is to focus on the nonsynonymous coding SNVs. However, there are still thousands, as shown in this study. We believe that protein level identification by shotgun proteomics, in combination with functional impact estimation, can serve as a useful approach for prioritizing important SNVs for targeted proteomics assay and functional analysis. From a clinical point of view, proteins with newly acquired oncogenic properties due to sequence variations represent important candidate therapeutic targets because their new functions may be essential in cancer cells, but non-essential in normal cells.
This framework generates sample-specific databases from RNA-Seq data to enable more sensitive and variation-aware protein discovery. Although here we focused on SNVs, RNA-Seq data could also facilitate the identification of novel alternative splice forms or fusion genes. A recent study suggests that novel alternative splice forms identified in RNA-Seq can be identified in proteomics data, although at a very limited scale47. With the improved sensitivity in proteomics and the availability of RNA-Seq data with paired-end reads and longer read length, novel transcripts derived from RNA-Seq data might become a useful addition in our framework for more comprehensive customized protein sequence databases.
Supplemental File 1. Configuration files with search parameters for the search engines.
Supplemental File 2. Variant peptides detected in SW480 by shotgun proteomics.
Supplemental File 3. Variant peptides detected in RKO by shotgun proteomics.
Supplemental File 4. Summary of the re-search result for unassigned spectra in the two cell lines.
Supplemental File 5. Rescued proteins in the re-search of unassigned spectra in the two cell lines.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) through grant R01 CA126218, the NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) through grant R01 GM088822, and the NCI Clinical Proteomic Technologies Assessment for Cancer (CPTAC) program through grant U24 CA126479. This work was conducted in part using the resources of the Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.