Accumulation of adenine deoxynucleotides (dATP and dADP) in the erythrocytes of a patient with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency was confirmed. The patient, now 18 mo old, was treated with a bone marrow transplantation from his HLA identical sister at 7 mo of age. Before and after the transplant, his erythrocyte and lymphocyte ADA activities, as well as his erythrocyte nucleotide profiles, were measured. 10 wk after the marrow transplant, no ADA activity could be detected in his erythrocytes, whereas there was a mixture of donor and patient lymphocytes as measured by ADA assays and karyotyping. At the same time, both dATP and dADP had disappeared from his erythrocytes, which were entirely of patient origin. These findings indicate that partial engraftment of donor lymphocytes into an ADA-deficient patient is capable of "correcting" alterations of deoxynucleotide concentrations in the patient's ADA-deficient erythrocytes.