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In the erythrocytes of a patient with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, a homozygous expression of hexokinase deficiency was detected. The mutant enzyme was characterized by normal kinetic parameters with respect to its substrates, glucose and MgATP2-, normal pH optimum, normal heat stability at 40 degrees C, but abnormal behavior with respect to its regulation by glucose-1,6-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate, and an altered electrophoretic pattern. Interpretation of the results revealed the presence of two different hexokinases type I in normal human erythrocytes: one enzyme with a high affinity for glucose-1,6-diphosphate, the inhibition of which is regulated by inorganic phosphate; and another enzyme with a lower affinity for the inhibitor, not regulated by inorganic phosphate. The former enzyme was not detectable in the erythrocytes of the patient, whereas the presence of the latter enzyme could be demonstrated.