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Incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, but few providers do this. We sought to use predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics of electronic health record (EHR) data to develop a highly accurate and clinically actionable 5 year life expectancy index.
We developed the index using EHR data for 7463 patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) in 2003 to a large, academic, multispecialty group practice. We extracted 980 attributes from the EHRs of the practices and affiliated hospitals. Correlation feature selection with greedy stepwise search was used to find the attribute subset with best average merit. Rotation forest ensembling with alternating decision tree as underlying classifier was used to predict 5 year mortality. Model performance was compared with the modified Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Walter life expectancy method.
Within 5 years of the last visit in 2003, 838 (11%) patients had died. The final model included 24 attributes: two demographic (age, sex), 10 comorbidity (eg, cardiovascular disease), one vital sign (mean diastolic blood pressure), two medications (loop diuretic use, digoxin use), six laboratory (eg, mean albumin), and three healthcare utilization (eg, the number of hospitalizations 1 year prior to the last visit in 2003). The index showed very good discrimination (c-statistic 0.86) and outperformed comparators.
The EHR based index successfully distinguished adults ≥50 years old with life expectancy >5 years from those with life expectancy ≤5 years. This information could be used clinically to optimize preventive service use (eg, cancer screening in the elderly).
Accurate life expectancy prediction is essential for clinical decision making—it helps physicians weigh the benefits and risks of alternative care strategies and identify the best option for each patient. Failure to consider life expectancy leads to poor quality care and wastes healthcare resources. For example, patients with life expectancy <5 years often receive cancer screening even though its potential harms outweigh any benefits in this population.1–6
Although incorporating accurate life expectancy predictions into clinical decision making could improve quality and decrease costs, few clinicians actually do this—perhaps because existing life expectancy indices are inaccurate and/or burdensome. Indices can be inaccurate because they use imperfect claims data.7 More accurate indices often include additional clinical information (eg, functional status) but its collection is burdensome—providers do not routinely assess things like functional status.8 9
Using comprehensive electronic health record (EHR) data for life expectancy prediction could address the limitations of existing indices. The EHR contains rich clinical data traditionally absent from claims (eg, vital signs, laboratory results) that could improve accuracy without increasing provider burden.10–13 However, analyzing the large amount of information within a comprehensive EHR is challenging.
Predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics can generate actionable insights based on massive and high dimensional data, such as that within a comprehensive EHR. For example, many companies (eg, Amazon, Netflix, Google) use predictive mining and analytics to generate individualized recommendations and personalized news on a massive scale—improving both sales and customer satisfaction.14–18 In healthcare, predictive data mining has been explored as a means to improve treatment of infections and cancer, identify adverse drug events, measure quality of asthma care, and predict cancer outcomes.19–24
Our goals were to: (1) present a set of approaches for predictive mining and analysis of high dimensional EHR data, (2) develop a highly accurate non-burdensome 5 year life expectancy index for outpatients aged 50 years and older, and (3) compare the new index with other better known prognostic indices (a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index25 and a modified Walter Life Expectancy Index26).
EHR data were extracted for patients ≥50 years old with ≥1 visit(s) to the Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation (NMFF) during 2003. NMFF is an urban, academic, multispecialty group practice with EpicCare EHR. Many NMFF patients receive hospital care at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, an urban academic hospital with Cerner EHR.
Outcome was death within 5 years of the last outpatient encounter in 2003 (ie, the index visit). This outcome was selected because decisions about preventive service use (eg, cancer screening, aggressive glucose control) should include consideration of 5 year life expectancy.3 6 26 Vital status was determined using the National Center for Health Statistics National Death Index (NDI) for the years 2003–2008. All patients were linked to the NDI using extracted EHR data. The probabilistic scoring approach with NDI recommended cut-off points was used to identify true matches.27
We extracted 980 distinct predictive attributes for 7463 patients. These attributes included all a priori plausible predictors of mortality available within the EHR, including sociodemographic data, comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory results, medications, and healthcare utilization (see online supplementary appendix).
We extracted 11 sociodemographic attributes from Epic: age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Asian, other, declined, or unknown), and socioeconomic status (zip code matched Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Index of Socioeconomic Status and its components using 1990 census data).28 To protect patient privacy, all patients ≥90 years old (n=53) were considered to be 90.
We extracted 117 comorbidity attributes from Epic. International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) codes, current procedural terminology codes, or substance use statuses were grouped to reflect specific comorbidity attributes (see online supplementary etable 1). Codes were extracted from encounter diagnoses in the year prior to the index visit, and the past medical history, past surgical history, social history, and problem list as of the index visit. Comorbidity attributes included individual diagnoses (eg, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease (PAD)), groups of related diagnoses (eg, any cardiovascular disease included coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or PAD), and a count of the comorbidities identified. An additional 26 attributes were counts of encounters in the year prior to the index visit for which the primary diagnosis was a comorbidity for which frequent exacerbations predict life expectancy (eg, heart failure) or for which identification of an active (ie, non-historical) diagnosis might be important (eg, cancer).
We extracted 20 vital sign attributes from Epic including the mean, SD, median, high, and low heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure recorded in the year prior to the index visit.
We extracted 664 possible medication attributes from Epic. Medications were classified into Veterans Administration Classes using National Drug Classification Codes.29 Codes were extracted from the medication list as of the index visit (binary and count attributes for each medication class) or from medications ordered in the year prior to the index visit (count attributes). Additional medication attributes included counts of antihypertensive medications, diabetic medications, and antiplatelet/anticoagulant medications and a count of total medications prescribed (see online supplementary etable 2).
We extracted 120 laboratory attributes from Epic, including mean, median, SD, high, and low for 24 laboratory tests (eg, creatinine, albumin) recorded in the year prior to the index visit (see online supplementary etable 3).
We extracted 44 healthcare utilization attributes from Cerner and six from Epic. Utilization attributes extracted from Cerner included discharge status (eg, to home, skilled nursing facility) and counts of hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and home health referrals either ≤1 or 1–2 years prior to the index visit. Utilization attributes extracted from Epic included counts of visits to a primary care provider, any general medicine provider, and any NMFF provider either ≤1 or 1–2 years prior to the index visit.
Feature selection aims to reduce the number of attributes while retaining the predictive power of the original attribute set. We analyzed our entire data set using Correlation Feature Selection (CFS) to identify a subset of features highly correlated with the outcome (dichotomous 5-year mortality) and weakly correlated amongst themselves.30 CFS was used in conjunction with a greedy stepwise search to find subsets with best average merit (see online supplementary eMethods). CFS identified a subset of 52 features, which was manually reviewed to eliminate: (1) 12 features with low face validity (eg, milk of magnesia use highly predictive of mortality—the two patients who received it both died), (2) 5 redundant features (eg, PAD already included in ‘any cardiovascular disease’), and (3) 3 features with potentially problematic reliability (eg, very low/high vital signs more susceptible to random error because of manual data entry). Manual reduction reduced the subset to 32 features. CFS was again applied to identify a subset of 23 features, to which sex was added for a final set of 24 features. Their relative predictive power was assessed using the information gain metric, which evaluates the worth of an attribute by measuring the information gain with respect to the outcome status.
We calculated a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI).7 We extracted demographic data and ICD-9 codes from Epic past medical history, past surgical history, and problem list as of the index visit and encounter diagnosis 1 year prior to the index visit to calculate an outpatient CCI adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Asian, other, declined, or unknown). Although this index typically applies only to hospitalized patients, investigators have previously used outpatient Charlson listed diagnoses and inpatient diagnoses to compute the score.25
We also calculated predicted life expectancy using a modified Walter method.26 We used comorbid diagnosis counts as a surrogate for provider classification into mortality risk groups (ie, highest quartile of comorbid diagnoses is equivalent to the sick group, lowest quartile is equivalent to the healthy group).31 Life expectancy was calculated for each group using age–sex matched life tables from 2003—the sick group is likely to live only as long as 25% of their age–sex matched cohort, the healthy group is likely to live as long as 75% of their age–sex matched cohort, and the intermediate group is likely to live as long as 50% of their age–sex matched cohort.
We used the rotation forest ensembling technique with alternating decision tree as the underlying classifier to predict 5 year mortality. The rotation forest ensembling technique is presented her because it was superior to models generated using other techniques (eg, logistic regression, support vector machines, neural networks, naïve Bayes, random forest, and Bayesian networks) (see online supplementary eMethods) Tenfold cross validation was used to evaluate the model in order to ensure that the model was tested on data that it had not seen while training, thus minimizing the chance of over fitting (see online supplementary eMethods ).
The discriminatory power of the predictive models was assessed using c statistics and binary classification metrics: sensitivity (recall), specificity, positive predictive value (precision), negative predictive value, the percentage of correct predictions, and the F measure (the harmonic mean of precision and recall). We used risk categories of <50% and ≥50% because this is equivalent to a median life expectancy of 5 years—a life expectancy at which point consideration of the benefits and risks of continued cancer screening is particularly important. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification improvement was used to compare the Ensemble Index to the comparison indices.32
To analyze calibration, the mean predicted and the observed risk of death within 5 years were compared across deciles of predicted risk. The Hosmer–Lemeshow χ2 test was used to determine if the difference between predicted and actual risks was statistically significant. Because our large sample had a relatively low incidence of death, we also compared predicted and observed risk of death within 5 years across risk deciles (<10%, 10%≤×<20%, 20%≤×<30%, etc). Statistical analysis was performed using R V.2.11.1, WEKA V.3.6.3, ROC Web-calculator,33 and STATA/SE V.10.1. All predictive modeling was done using WEKA implementations of various techniques with default parameters, unless otherwise stated. This study was approved by the institutional review board at Northwestern University.
We identified 7463 patients aged 50 years or greater with one or more visits to NMFF in 2003. Selected characteristics are displayed in table 1. Mean age of the participants was 62 years. Forty per cent were men and 51% were white. The most common diagnoses were hypertension (52%), any cardiovascular disease (17%), diabetes (17%), and cancer (15%).
Within 5 years of their index visit, 838 (11%) patients died (table 1). These patients were older (mean age 70 vs 61 years), more likely to be black (33% vs 23%), had more comorbid diagnoses (4.1±2.3 vs 2.3±1.8), and were hospitalized more often in the 2 years prior to their index visit. Patients who died had lower albumin (3.3 vs 3.8) and a higher creatinine (1.5 vs 1.0).
The final model included age, sex, 10 comorbidity attributes (eg, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease), mean diastolic blood pressure, loop diuretic use, digoxin use, six laboratory attributes (eg, mean albumin, mean creatinine), number of visits to primary care provider in the year prior to the index visit, and number of hospitalizations 0–1 and 1–2 years prior to the index visit. Those attributes with the greatest predictive power (information gain) were age, comorbidity count, hospitalizations 1 year prior to the index visit, the highest blood urea nitrogen in the year prior to the index visit, and the lowest calcium in the year prior to the index visit (figure 1).
Model discrimination was very good (c statistic 0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87). Using a predicted 5 year mortality ≥50% as a cut-off, the sensitivity of the Ensemble Index for predicting 5 year mortality was 31%, specificity was 98%, and the F measure was 41% (table 2). The difference between predicted and observed mortality was <3% across all deciles of risk. The Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic was 18.7 (p=0.02) for deciles of risk and 12.2 (p=0.20) for risk deciles (table 3).
Ensemble Index discrimination was significantly better than both the modified Charlson Index (c statistic 0.81, 9% CI 0.79 to 0.83; p value for comparison <0.001) and the Walter method (c statistic 0.78, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.80; p value for comparison <0.001) (table 2, figure 2). Using predicted 5 year mortality ≥50% as a cut-off, the Ensemble Index outperformed both the Charlson model and the Walter model on all performance measures except specificity (98% Ensemble vs 99% Charlson) (table 2).
Compared with the modified Charlson Index, the Ensemble Index reclassified 181 patients as high risk that ultimately died within 5 years. Compared with the Walter method, the Ensemble Index reclassified 144 patients as high risk that ultimately died within 5 years. Net reclassification improvement for the Ensemble Index over the modified Charlson Index was 16.8% (p<0.001) and over the modified Walter was 8.8% (p<0.001) (table 2).
We developed an index that successfully distinguishes between outpatients ≥50 years old with life expectancy<5 years from those with a longer life expectancy. To address the limitations of existing prognostic indices, we used predictive data mining and high dimensional analysis to generate meaningful predictions from the wealth of clinical data in a comprehensive EHR.
Our index is highly discriminative—the c statistic (0.86, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.87) is similar to or better than the best models in the existing literature.8 9 Our index is highly discriminative without being burdensome—using existing EHR data eliminates the need for providers to collect additional information (eg, functional status or activities of daily living). Clinicians should feel comfortable using this highly discriminative, well calibrated, non-burdensome prognostic index in clinical decision making.
Ideally, patients with a life expectancy long enough to benefit from service use should receive the service, while those with limited life expectancies should be spared potentially harmful services that are unlikely to improve outcomes. For example, some cancer screening guidelines recommend against screening patients with a life expectancy <5 years because the potential harms of screening are immediate while the benefits are not realized until 5 years later.3 34 Our index could be used to optimize cancer screening practices—differentiating those patients for whom cancer screening is likely to improve outcomes (life expectancy >5 years) from those in whom cancer screening is unlikely to improve outcomes and may cause harm (life expectancy <5 years). In our study, over half of all patients ≥75 years old had a predicted 5 year mortality <50% and were likely to benefit from continued screening, despite their advanced age. For example, an 81-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease, a mean diastolic blood pressure of 79 mm Hg, unremarkable laboratory studies, and no hospitalizations has a predicted 5 year mortality <10% and is likely to benefit from continued screening despite her advanced age. On the other hand, approximately 5% of patients <75 years old had a predicted 5 year mortality of ≥50% and were likely to be harmed by continued screening. For example, a 63-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diastolic blood pressure 75 mm Hg, low albumin, high blood urea nitrogen, on a loop diuretic, and one hospitalization in the year prior to her last visit has a predicted 5 year mortality of 67% and is likely to experience only the harms of continued screening despite her relative youth. Although individual patients and providers may value this predictive information differently, making the information available could facilitate informed decision making and improve quality care.
Our index compares favorably with existing life expectancy indices. In this study, the Ensemble Index outperformed both the modified Charlson Index and the modified Walter life expectancy method. In order to automate the Walter method, we removed provider input. Although this may have marginally worsened its predictive ability, this change is unlikely to explain the poor discrimination of the method relative to the Ensemble Index. Our index is more discriminative and less burdensome than similar indices reported in the literature—Lee et al8 and Schonberg et al9 used survey data (including functional status measures) to predict 4 year (Lee) and 5 year (Schonberg) life expectancy with c statistics of 0.84 and 0.75, respectively.
Our index has limitations. First, our index lacks functional status information. While our index's c statistic was similar to that of indices including functional status measures, adding this information would likely have further improved discrimination of the Ensemble Index. It is now possible to efficiently collect and record this information in the EHR using tablet computers.35 Second, our index does not include rare conditions (eg, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) that influence life expectancy—clinicians must exercise their own judgment when caring for patients with these conditions. Third, the Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic was statistically significant (18.69, p=0.02). Although we believe that calibration and discrimination are equally important for a mortality prediction model such as ours, the significant Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic does not necessarily mean that the index is not useful—even well calibrated models will often have significant Hosmer–Lemeshow statistics when the sample size is large.36 The absence of any systematic variation between predicted and observed risk, and the difference in observed and expected risk of less than 3% across all deciles both suggest that the Ensemble Index was well calibrated. Fourth, the index had low sensitivity (31%). Although this may limit its potential impact, any increases in sensitivity would result in undesirable decreases in specificity. Finally, our index was developed using patient data from a single multispecialty practice and its affiliated hospital. As such, the utility of our index in other settings is unknown—it should be tested in other populations, clinics, and EHRs to evaluate generalizability.
Healthcare organizations should also consider using predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics on their own data—generating life expectancy indices specific to their patient population, provider EHR documentation practices, and available data. As EHR adoption increases, healthcare organizations grow, genetic testing increases, and medical knowledge expands, the availability of highly detailed, patient specific, potentially predictive information will increase. For this information to improve patient care it must be incorporated into clinical decision making, but this likely will be difficult for already burdened providers. Predictive data mining and high dimensional analytics use all available information to provide healthcare organizations with actionable insights that can improve the quality of patient care and decrease costs. Life expectancy indices developed using this methodology are likely to be less expensive than more generalizable indices developed using prospectively collected survey data (eg, Health and Retirement Study). Furthermore, indices developed using data mining and analytics can be automated and their predictions integrated into the EHR—driving clinical decision support algorithms, providing prognostic information at the point of care, or measuring the quality of care.
In summary, we successfully used predictive data mining and high dimensional analysis of EHR data to develop an highly discriminative, non-burdensome, 5 year life expectancy index for outpatients aged 50 years old or older using computer intensive analysis of EHR data. Our index had very good discrimination, was well calibrated, and compared favorably to existing indices. The new index could improve clinical decision making by optimizing use of preventive services like cancer screening—targeting screening to those patients most likely to benefit. Furthermore, similar application of our methodology could use increasingly available EHR data to predict almost anything of interest (eg, readmissions, total costs). These predictive models could ultimately guide interventions (eg, quality measurement, clinical decision support) that improve clinical decision making, improve quality, and decrease costs.
Contributors: All authors have made substantial contributions to the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. All authors have reviewed the final version of the manuscript as submitted and approved it for publication. JSM and AA had full access to all of the data in this study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Funding: This work is supported in part by the following grants: NSF awards CCF-1029166 and OCI-1144061; DOE awards DE-SC0005340 and DE-SC0007456. JSM's fellowship is funded by AHRQ grant 5T32HS000078-13.
Competing interests: None.
Ethics approval: The study was approved by the institutional review board at Northwestern University.
Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Correction notice: This paper has been corrected since it was published Online First. The funding statement has been updated.