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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
From:
Arch Intern Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 July 16.
Published in final edited form as:
Arch Intern Med. 2012 April 9; 172(7): 555–563.
Published online 2012 March 12. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2287

Table 3

Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cardiovascular mortality according to red meat intake in the HPFS and NHS
Frequency of consumption (quintiles)

Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5P for trendHR (95% CI) for 1 serving/d increase
HPFS

Total red meat
 Cases/person-years537/152293490/153126506/152623518/153454665/152647
 Age-adjusted model1.001.05 (0.93-1.19)1.11 (0.98-1.26)1.15 (1.02-1.30)1.48 (1.32-1.66)<0.0011.21 (1.16-1.27)
 Multivariate modela1.001.09 (0.96-1.24)1.16 (1.03-1.32)1.17 (1.03-1.33)1.35 (1.19-1.53)<0.0011.14 (1.08-1.20)
Unprocessed red meat
 Cases/person-years578/151850528/150172446/155316532/152087632/154719
 Age-adjusted model1.001.08 (0.95-1.20)0.97 (0.86-1.10)1.11 (0.98-1.25)1.41 (1.26-1.58)<0.0011.26 (1.18-1.34)
 Multivariate modela1.001.10 (0.97-1.24)1.08 (0.95-1.22)1.14 (1.01-1.29)1.32 (1.16-1.49)<0.0011.19 (1.10-1.27)
Processed red meat
 Cases/person-years594/172817423/131953510/153537512/153206677/152631
 Age-adjusted model1.000.99 (0.88-1.12)1.14 (1.01-1.29)1.13 (1.00-1.27)1.37 (1.23-1.53)<0.0011.34 (1.24-1.46)
 Multivariate modela1.001.05 (0.93-1.19)1.15 (1.01-1.30)1.15 (1.02-1.31)1.25 (1.11-1.41)0.0031.17 (1.07-1.29)

NHS

Total red meat
 Cases/person-years601/440429570/444046517/441619598/442319908/441994
 Age-adjusted model1.001.11 (0.99-1.25)1.09 (0.97-1.22)1.33 (1.19-1.49)1.98 (1.79-2.20)<0.0011.44 (1.38-1.50)
 Multivariate modela1.001.14 (1.01-1.27)1.11 (0.99-1.26)1.28 (1.13-1.43)1.45 (1.30-1.63)<0.0011.17 (1.11-1.22)
Unprocessed red meat
 Cases/person-years617/443224646/443182481/441163549/432988901/449850
 Age-adjusted model1.001.21 (1.08-1.35)0.96 (0.85-1.09)1.15 (1.03-1.29)1.82 (1.65-2.02)<0.0011.46 (1.39-1.54)
 Multivariate modela1.001.22 (1.09-1.37)1.09 (0.96-1.23)1.19 (1.06-1.34)1.39 (1.24-1.55)<0.0011.17 (1.10-1.24)
Processed red meat
 Cases/person-years671/444737551/422411586/457265572/443383814/442609
 Age-adjusted model1.000.98 (0.88-1.10)1.10 (0.99-1.23)1.16 (1.03-1.29)1.65 (1.49-1.83)<0.0011.79 (1.64-1.95)
 Multivariate modela1.000.97 (0.87-1.09)1.10 (0.99-1.23)1.12 (0.99-1.25)1.29 (1.15-1.43)<0.0011.26 (1.15-1.39)

Pooled Resultsb

 Total red meat1.001.12 (1.03-1.22)1.13 (1.04-1.24)1.23 (1.13-1.34)1.40 (1.29-1.53)<0.0011.16 (1.12-1.20)
 Unprocessed red meat1.001.16 (1.05-1.28)1.09 (1.00-1.18)1.17 (1.07-1.27)1.36 (1.25-1.47)<0.0011.18 (1.13-1.23)
 Processed red meat1.001.01 (0.92-1.10)1.12 (1.03-1.22)1.13 (1.04-1.23)1.27 (1.18-1.38)<0.0011.21 (1.13-1.31)

Abbreviation: HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; NHS, Nurses' Health Study.

aMultivariate model: adjusted for age (continuous), body mass index category (<23, 23-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, ≥35 kg/m2), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1-4.9, 5.0-14.9, ≥15 g/d), physical activity level (<3, 3-8.9, 9-17.9, 18-26.9, ≥27 hours of metabolic equivalent tasks per week), smoking status (never, past, current 1-14 cigarettes/d, current 15-24 cigarettes/d, current ≥25 cigarettes/d,), race (white/non-white), menopausal status and hormone use in women (premenopausal, postmenopausal never users, postmenopausal past users, postmenopausal current users), family history of diabetes, myocardial infarction, or cancer, history of diabetes, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia, quintiles of total energy intake, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
bResults from multivariate model 2 were combined using random-effects model.