Fertility behaviour and child loss
In the present study, fertility has been measured by ‘children ever born’ while child loss by ‘number of children who died’. shows that average number of children ever born to the ever-married women in the matrilineal tribal societies were 3.70, with a very high standard deviation of 2.57 and slightly more number of sons ever born than the daughters. Mean number of living children was found to be 3.19, with a slightly higher number of living sons (1.65) than daughters (1.53). Standard deviation of the number of living children came out to be very high (2.17) compared to both number of living sons and daughters when computed separately. Mean number of children dying among the matrilineal women in Meghalaya was 0.51, with a standard deviation of 1.02. Mean number of sons (0.28) and daughters (0.24) who died is almost equal. This indirectly indicates the equal treatment to children in the community; of course, this might be during infancy and/or childhood.
Mean number and standard deviation of children ever born, number of living children, ideal number of children, and number of children who died
It has been found that mean ideal number of children for ever-married women in matrilineal tribal society is 4.95, with a very high standard deviation of 2.05 (). It should be noted that 8.9% (70 cases) of women did not give any numeric response to this question (results not shown). The mean ideal number of sons (2.40) and daughters (2.39) shows no such differences, although the standard deviation is slightly higher for sons (1.24) than that of daughters (1.16). However, it should be noted that difference in mean value of ideal number of sons and daughters alone cannot ascertain if there is any sex preference of children because this is highly affected by the extreme values and, on the other hand, by the number of living children itself. One of the reasons for very high ideal number of children and high fertility rate in the state may be the very high mortality of infants and under-five children (IMR 89—highest in the country and under-five mortality 122—the third highest in the country) (2
). However, a study noted that the local tribes in Meghalaya were/are pro-natalists, and they proudly proclaim to be so. Population increase is considered a boon, and the children are considered gifts of God. The study further states that the people believe: as long as they are able to feed the children, the number is not a problem (8
). Some studies (8
) suggest reasons for high fertility simply as fear of psychosis against voluminous immigration from neighbouring countries and non-tribals from other parts of the country. This may change the demographic structure of the state, and the prestige and status attached to large family-size in the society (8
Ideal sex composition of children
Conventional way of looking at the sex preference for children is to find out the ideal sex composition of children or, in other words, the difference in ideal number of sons and daughters, which is attempted here too. It has been found that, for about 65% of ever-married women, the ideal number of daughters and sons is equal whereas 17% of the women have reported to desire more sons than daughters but 18.2% of the women have reported to desire more daughters than sons (). In other words, the Daughter Preference Index (DPI) is 1.07. This result shows slight preference for daughters over the sons. However, as most of the societies pass through a transitional phase due to several external and internal forces and matrilineal societies of Meghalaya are no exception (8
), the importance of daughter is losing its significance; so, preference for daughter is less apparent. Elsewhere also, changes in matrilineal cultural traits are partly or completely reported, particularly among the Garos of Assam (16
). Further, son preference is weak in populations with both high and low fertility (17
Differences between living and ideal number of children
It is generally argued that the ideal number of children is greatly affected by the number of living children; so, it will be of worth to check this relationship. depicts that, for about 61.3% of ever-married women, the ideal number of daughters is higher than the number of living daughters while 13.3% of the women have higher number of living daughters than the ideal number. For about one-fourth of the women, it is equal. Thus, it can be said that the ideal number of daughters is not affected by the number of living daughters in matrilineal tribal society.
Difference between numbers of ideal and living children
It has been found that, for about 57.3% of the women, the ideal number of sons is greater than their living sons. Interestingly, only 14.5% of the women have more number of living sons than the ideal number of sons. However, slightly more than one-fourth of the women have equal number of living and ideal number of sons (). This result also shows a similar pattern in terms of difference between ideal number of daughters and number of living daughters. The differences between living and ideal number of sons and between living and ideal number of daughters also ascertain the existence of daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in Meghalaya.
Factors affecting ideal sex composition of children
It is imperative to know which groups of women prefer more number of daughters than sons, and an attempt is made here to address this question. The result in shows that daughter preference is comparatively more apparent among women in 25-34 years age-group, non-literate, highly-educated, formerly-married, and non-working women as well as women from male-headed households, urban households with low standard of living, and among Jaintia and Garo tribes.
Differences in ideal sex composition of children by background characteristics
Except for non-literate women, preference for more daughters steadily increased with increase in the level of education. Daughter preference is the highest among the non-literate and women with the highest level of education. Almost a similar pattern is observed in the case of educational level of husband as well. However, study on son preference exhibits significant negative relationship between husband's education and son preference, although women's education has no significant relationship (18
). This connotes that education has not much to do with the sex preference of children, or because educated Khasi women are culturally more sensitive and as such found to be strictly following the cultural taboos and norms (9
Preference for daughters was more pronounced among the formerly-married women than the currently-married ones. It may be because they felt that it was ideal to have more daughters for old-age security. Similarly, women who were currently not working might not be economically strong and, hence, they looked forward to daughters for economic support during their old age, thereby preferring more daughters. On the contrary, as working women were economically independent, the percentage of women who preferred more sons was higher among them. Another interesting point to note is that, although percentage of rural and urban women who desired to have more daughters was almost equal, the percentage of rural women who desired to have more sons was about 8 percentage-points higher than urban women. Preference for daughter declined quite apparently with the increase in the standards of living. A similar pattern was observed even for sons, which means that sex preference (for either) declined with the increase in the standards of living. Another study on son preference also showed similar relationship (18
). Daughter preference is more perceptible among the Jaintia and Garo women than the Khasi whereas percentage of women who preferred son is almost equal across all the three groups of women. Daughter preference was less among the Khasi because they have more contact with other patriarchal communities for the state capital being located in Khasi Hills where the transition is passing at a much faster pace.
Achieved fertility and contraceptive-use
In the present paper, ‘achieved fertility’ has been defined as equal number of living and ideal number of daughters and equal number of living and ideal number of sons. In other words, sex composition of living children remains the same with sex composition of ideal number of children. It has been found that almost 89% of ever-married women could not have achieved fertility or could not achieve their desired sex composition of children but 11% (77cases) of women could achieve their desired sex composition of children (). It is assumed that later group of women should not desire to have additional child and rather take recourse to contraception, mostly a terminal method.
Result on contraceptive-use () clearly indicates that, among the women who achieved fertility and were currently-married, 61.8% (42 cases) were still not using any method of contraception. On the other hand, 25% (17 cases) were still depending on temporary methods of contraception, and only 13.2% (9 cases) adopted terminal method of contraception. Similarly, the field survey conducted in 1999 among 400 Khasi women found that more than 70% of the current contraceptive-users were relying on temporary methods (12
). Thus, the hypothesis “women/couples who have had their ideal number of children with desired sex composition are supposed to practise terminal methods of contraception” may be rejected.
However, it is essential to know as to why such small percentages of women adopted contraception, especially a terminal method.
Reasons for not using contraception
Among the women who had ‘achieved fertility’, the reasons cited for not using any method of contraception reflect that majority of women (38%) did not use mainly because of programme factors (knew no method, knew no source, lack of access or too much cost); slightly more than one-fourth (26.2%) were not using because of individual factors (wanted more children, were pregnant, husband opposed, health concern, or side-effects); and the remaining (35.7%) were not using for other reasons (). However, a study conducted among the Khasi women in East Khasi Hills district found that the main reasons for never using any method of contraception pertaineed to the client factors (45.8%), followed by cultural factors (32.9%), health factors (14.2%), and programme factors (7.1%). The study included ‘difficult to get method’ and ‘can't afford’ as programme factors; ‘side-effects’ and ‘difficult to get pregnant’ as health factors; ‘against religion’ and ‘cultural taboos’ as cultural factors, and ‘lack of knowledge’, ‘husband opposed’, ‘not necessary’, ‘felt scared’, ‘wanted more child’, ‘wanted a daughter’ and ‘husband away’ as client factors (14
). Thus, in the study, if ‘lack of knowledge’ and ‘felt scared’ were clubbed into programme factors, the similar result might have come out.
Reasons for not using any method of contraception
In the present study, some women wanted to have more children even after attaining desired sex composition of children; this might be due to the very high mortality of infants and under-five children (although it is not reflected in the cited reasons) because they were not sure whether their children would survive. The reasons given for not using any method of contraception showed that the women who had ‘achieved fertility’ could be motivated to use contraception through improvement in the reproductive and child health programmes.
Number of living daughters and contraceptive-use
It is an established fact that in patriarchal societies, the number of living sons is one of the most important determining factors of contraceptive-use. On the contrary, a strong preference for girls was a significant determinant of contraceptive-use among the matrilineal Garo women in Bangladesh (19
). Here also, an attempt is made to assess the contraceptive-use among the currently-married women by the number of both living daughters and sons. Result in shows that percentage of women using contraception increased up to three living children, implying preference for three children, irrespective of sex composition. It is apparent that contraceptive-use increased up to two living daughters as well as sons, although the level of use was comparatively higher when they had two daughters and thereafter became erratic. It implies that the relationship between number of living daughters/sons and contraceptive-use does not seem to be very straightforward. It is, therefore, difficult to draw a strong conclusion from this bivariate relationship. However, the better way of looking at this relationship may be to control any one of the three independent components ().
Current contraceptive-use by number of children
Percentage of currently-married women using contraception by total living daughters and sons
One of the very interesting findings is that when currently-married women had two living sons with no daughter, about 27% used contraception. However, when they had three sons without any daughter, only 20% used contraception. Similarly, when they had four sons without any daughter, no women used contraception (). These results strongly indicate the growing desire of women to beget a daughter with increase in the number of living children.
Result indicates that, among different sex composition of children, the highest percentage of women using contraception was observed when they had two daughters, or two daughters and a son. On the contrary, a study on son preference showed the highest contraceptive-use, with two sons and a daughter (20
). So, the present study finds that couples/women in matrilineal societies do not want only daughters, they also want to have a son. Further, it also signifies that the best sex composition of children for matrilineal couples/women in Meghalaya was at least two daughters and a son, thereby indicating the prevailing daughter preference. However, this result is slightly in contrast to the ideal number of daughters and sons because, while answering about ideal number of children, they seemed to relate the same to total number of living children.
Desire for additional child(ren)
A way of looking at daughter preference is to examine the desire for additional child(ren) by total number of living daughters and sons (). The percentage of women desiring to have additional child(ren) was the highest when they had only a son and no daughter. This was even higher than among women without any child. This may be because once the women had given birth to a child, they were sure of their fecundity and, hence, wished to have an additional child. When both children were daughters, about 67% of the women wanted an additional child. In other cases, if they did not have any daughter, as high as 77% of the women wanted an additional child. Similarly, when they had three children, and all of them were daughters, about 67% of the women desired an additional child but when all were sons, about 69% of the women wanted more child(ren). Further, when they had four children without any son, slightly less than half of the women desired additional child(ren) but when they did not have any daughter, as high as 83% wanted an additional child. One can infer from the above that this pattern was due to the daughter preference. However, to confirm this proposition, attempt was made to see their desire for sex of the next child.
Percentage of currently-married women desiring additional child(ren) by total number of living daughters and sons
Desire for additional daughter(s)
presents the result of sex preference of the next child (here two categories of responses “sex does not matter” and “it is up to God” have been excluded from the analysis). The result shows that, among the women who wanted additional child(ren), 60.4% wanted a daughter, thus yielding an overall daughter preference index of 1.5. Further, it has been found that half of the women desired their first child to be a daughter whereas the remaining half desired their first child to be a son. However, when the women had one living child and it was a daughter, their desire for the next child to be a girl was very low (13%). On the contrary, if it was a son, 94% of the women wanted the next child to be a girl. From two sons onward, when women did not have any daughter, everyone wanted the next child to be a girl. It sufficiently implies that the desire for a daughter was much more pronounced among the women of higher parity, who did not have a daughter. On the contrary, when all the four living children were daughters, no woman desired the next child to be a girl. This signifies that, although there is daughter preference in the matrilineal societies, there is no negligence to male children.
Percentage of currently-married women preferring the next child to be female by total number of living daughters and sons
Factors affecting desire for sex of the next child
As multivariate results can present more appropriate and accurate findings regarding the issue under investigation (21
), we applied binary logistic regression () to find out the factors affecting the desire for sex of the next child. Result shows that, after controlling for various socioeconomic factors, the desire for the next child to be a girl depended mainly on the sex composition of living children and standards of living. It is found that, compared to ‘others’ group (women who have both son and daughter or none), odds of desire to beget a female offspring is very strong (16.696) among the women who did not have any daughter. On the contrary, women without any son or with daughters only were less likely to desire the next child to be a girl (odds ratio 0.018). Compared to households with low standards of living, women from households with medium standards of living were less likely to desire the next child to be a girl. It was also true for women from households with high standard of living compared to those with low standard of living but the result was not that much significant. Except these two variables, none of the others was found to be statistically significant. Thus, the result clearly signifies that there was daughter preference in the matrilineal tribal societies in India. A study (18
) also shows that sex composition of the living children has prominent impact on the desire for sex of the next child.
Determinants of sex preference of the desired additional child: Result of logistic regression [Dependant variable: Sex of desired additional child (male=0; female=1)]