Epilepsy results from “electrical storms” inside the brain that cause recurring seizures. About 2 in 100 people in the United States experience an unprovoked seizure at least once in their lives. The population and shape of involved epileptic neurons vary along the time course of each epileptiform event in a very short time span. Current clinical functional imaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are limited by their low temporal resolution in documenting such paroxysmal epileptiform events. High temporal resolution is critical to overcome the motion artifacts caused by patients or procedures during epilepsy surgery. Although optical mapping methods such as intrinsic optical imaging (IOS) (Bahar et al,. 2006; Inyushin et. al., 2001; Haglund and Hochman, 2004; Schwartz et al., 2004; Schwartz and Bonhoeffer 2001) and voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) (Cohen et. al,. 1986) have limitations in imaging depth and tissue toxicity, the development of epileptic animal models has made them very useful (Raol et. al., 2012). More recent developments in the optical mapping of neural activities include the optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Satomura Y. et. al., 2004; Aguirre A. D. et. al., 2006; Rajagopalan U. M. et. al., 2007; Chen Y. et. al., 2009; Sato M. et. al., 2010; Liang et. al., 2011; Lenkov et. al., 2012; M. Eberle et. al., 2012) and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) (Hu et. al., 2009; Maslov et. al., 2008; Tsytsarev et. al., 2011; Wang et. al., 2003; Wang 2008; Wang 2009; Liao et. al., 2010; Liao et. al., 2012a; Liao et. al., 2012b). OCT can image both the refractive index modulation of the tissue that surrounds epileptic neurons with optical scattering contrast and the neuron-vasculature coupled blood flow patterns with Doppler OCT contrast. PAM represents an innovation in the functional imaging of red blood cells and blood flow. It provides functional data such as the oxygen saturation of red blood cells in the microvasculature. Because PAM is based on pure optical absorption contrast, it does not require the dense optical scans required by Doppler OCT, and it is immune to axial motion artifacts that may significantly compromise the blood flow images generated by the Doppler OCT in in vivo applications. As a rapidly evolving imaging technology, PAM promises deep imaging into tissue due to its multi-scale imaging capability (Wang et. al., 2012). By recording the optical refractive index modulation with OCT technology and simultaneously documenting the hemodynamic changes in epileptiform events with PAM, we can, for the first time, perform epilepsy mapping with high temporal and spatial resolution and dual optical contrasts. We expect our demonstrated technology to have great utility in applications such as epilepsy drug development and epilepsy surgery.