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Natural killer (NK) cells, the CD3- CD56+ CD16+ subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes, have long been known to be involved in non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted natural immunity to virally infected and malignant target cells. The association of abnormalities in NK cell numbers or functions with a broad spectrum of human diseases has been more clearly defined in recent years as a result of the improved knowledge of NK cell physiology and advances in monitoring of NK cell functions in health and disease. The ability to reliably measure changes in NK activity and/or numbers during the course of disease or response to treatment has focused attention on the role of the NK cell in disease pathogenesis. The improved understanding of NK cell deficiency in disease has opened a way for therapies specifically designed to improve NK cell function. The therapeutic use of biologic response modifiers capable of augmenting NK cell activity in vivo and of adoptive transfer of highly enriched, activated autologous NK cells in diseases such as cancer and AIDS is being evaluated. The importance of NK cells in health and the consequences of NK cell deficiency or excess are likely to be more extensively monitored in the future.