1. World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress report 2010.
2. Sterne JA, May M, et al. When to Start Consortium. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies. Lancet. 2009;373:1352–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 3. Fox MP, Rosen S. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2009: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15(uppl 1):1–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Corbett EL. Health worker access to HIV/TB prevention, treatment and care services in Africa: situational analysis and mapping of routine and current best practices. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine; WHO/HIV Department; WHO/TB Department; Global Health Workforce Alliance; 2007.
7. Campbell S, Klein R. Home testing to detect human immunodeficiency virus: boon or bane? J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3473–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Spielberg F, Levine RO, Weaver M. Home self-testing for HIV: directions for action research in developing countries. Seattle, WA: The Synergy Project; 2003.
10. Spielberg F, Levine RO, Weaver M. Self-testing for HIV: a new option for HIV prevention? Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:640–6. [PubMed] 11. Wright AA, Katz IT. Home testing for HIV. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:437–40. [PubMed] 12. Frith L. HIV self-testing: a time to revise current policy. Lancet. 2007;369:243–5. [PubMed] 13. Beyrer C, Sullivan PS, Sanchez J, et al. A call to action for comprehensive HIV services for men who have sex with men. Lancet. 2012;380:424–38. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 14. Pant Pai N, Balram B, Shivkumar S, et al. Head-to-head comparison of accuracy of a rapid point-of-care HIV test with oral versus whole-blood specimens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:373–80. [PubMed] 15. Rosen S, Fox MP, Gill CJ. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e298. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 17. De Cock KM, Mbori-Ngacha D, Marum E. Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century. Lancet. 2002;360:67–72. [PubMed] 18. Baggaley R, Hensen B, Ajose W, et al. From caution to urgency: the evolving response to HIV testing and counselling in Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:652–8B. [PubMed] 19. Gilks CF, Crowley S, Ekpini R, et al. The WHO public-health approach to antiretroviral treatment against HIV in resource-limited settings. Lancet. 2006;368:505–10. [PubMed] 20. Hensen B, Baggaley R, Wong VJ, et al. Universal voluntary HIV testing in antenatal care settings: a review of the contribution of provider-initiated testing & counselling. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:59–70. [PubMed]
21. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) UNAIDS technical update. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS; 2000.
23. Branson B, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(RR14):1–17. [PubMed]
27. National AIDS and STD Control Programme. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation; 2008. Guidelines for HIV testing and counselling in Kenya.
29. Torjesen I. Licensed home tests will be introduced to reduce undiagnosed HIV. BMJ. 2011;343:d7943. : [PubMed] 31. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, Treatment Action Campaign, SECTION27. How we can improve HIV testing and counselling. Society News. 2012 Available at http://www.sahivsoc.org/newsroom/society-news. Accessed 21 May 2012. 32. Herbst JH, Glassman M, Carey JW, et al. Operational research to improve HIV prevention in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59:530–6. [PubMed]
35. Bui K, Spielberg F. Computer-assisted counseling and rapid HIV testing in chemical dependency treatment settings. J Investig Med. 2007;55:S145–6.
36. Gaydos C, Hsieh Y, Bura A, et al. Can we ever expect to have individuals perform their own HIV rapid tests?; 47th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Philadelphia, PA. Abstract 180. Arlington, VA: IDSA, 2009.
37. Kalibala S, Tun W, Muraah W, Cherutich P, Oweya E, Oluoch P. “Knowing myself first”: feasibility of self-testing among health workers in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Population Council; 2011.
38. Lee VJ, Tan SC, Earnest A, Seong PS, Tan HH, Leo YS. User acceptability and feasibility of self-testing with HIV rapid tests. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;45:449–53. [PubMed] 40. Phillips KA, Chen JL. Willingness to use instant home HIV tests: data from the California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:340–8. [PubMed] 41. Phillips KA, Johnson FR, Maddala T. Measuring what people value: a comparison of “attitude” and “preference” surveys. Health Serv Res. 2002;37:1659–79. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 42. Phillips KA, Maddala T, Johnson FR. Measuring preferences for health care interventions using conjoint analysis: an application to HIV testing. Health Serv Res. 2002;37:1681–705. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 44. Skolnik HS, Phillips KA, Binson D, Dilley JW. Deciding where and how to be tested for HIV: what matters most? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;27:292–300. [PubMed] 45. Spielberg F, Branson BM, Goldbaum GM, et al. Overcoming barriers to HIV testing: preferences for new strategies among clients of a needle exchange, a sexually transmitted disease clinic, and sex venues for men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32:318–27. [PubMed]
46. Spielberg F, Camp S, Ramachandra E. HIV home self-testing: can it work?; Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2003. National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, GA. Abstract 1007.
47. Spielberg F; Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Acceptability of self-testing for STIs in India. 2010 Abstract.
48. Kruse GR, Chapula BT, Ikeda S, et al. Burnout and use of HIV services among health care workers in Lusaka District, Zambia: a cross-sectional study. Hum Resour Health. 2009;7:55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
49. Kalibala S, Tun W, Muraah W. Feasibility and acceptability of HIV self testing among health care workers: results of a pilot programme in two hospitals in Kenya; 18th International AIDS Conference, Vienna, Austria. Abstract WEPDC205. Geneva, Switzerland: International AIDS Society, 2010.
50. Chavula K, Desmond N, Choko A, et al. Convenient, voluntary, and confidential: can supervised self-testing contribute to available best-practice models of HIV testing and counselling in Malawi?. National AIDS Commission Research and Dissemination Conference,; Lilongwe, Malawi. 2010. Abstract A9.
51. Namakhoma I, Bongololo G, Bello G, et al. Negotiating multiple barriers: health workers’ access to counselling, testing and treatment in Malawi. AIDS Care. 2010;22(suppl 1):68–76. [PubMed] 52. Choko AT, Desmond N, Webb EL, et al. The uptake and accuracy of oral kits for HIV self-testing in high HIV prevalence setting: a cross-sectional feasibility study in Blantyre, Malawi. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001102. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 53. Carballo-Dieguez A, Frasca T, Dolezal C, Balan I. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners? J Sex Res. 2012;49:379–87. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
54. Estcourt C, Saunders J, Mercer C, Sutcliffe L, Hart G. Exploring the acceptability of medical, educational and sport settings for STI screening: stratified random probability survey of young men in the UK. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(suppl 1):A342.
55. Gaydos CA, Hsieh Y, Harvey L, et al. Will patients “opt in" to perform their own rapid HIV test in the emergency department? Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58:S74–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 56. Greacen T, Friboulet D, Fugon L, Hefez S, Lorente N, Spire B. Access to and use of unauthorised online HIV self-tests by Internet-using French-speaking men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:367–74. [PubMed] 57. Grispen JEJ, Ronda G, Dinant GJ, Vries NKd, Weijden Tvd. To test or not to test: a cross-sectional survey of the psychosocial determinants of self-testing for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:112. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 58. Ickenroth MH, Ronda G, Grispen JEJ, Dinant GJ, de Vries NK, van der Weijden T. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey. BMC Fam Pract. 2010;11:77. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
59. Katz DA, Golden MR, Hughes JP, Farquhar C, Steckler JD. Acceptibility and ease of use of home self-testing for HIV among MSM. 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections,; Seattle, WA. Paper 1131.. CROI; 2012.
60. Saunders JM, Mercer CH, Sutcliffe LJ, Hart GJ, Cassell J, Estcourt CS. Where do young men want to access STI screening? A stratified random probability sample survey of young men in Great Britain. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:427–32. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 61. Sharma A, Sullivan PS, Khosropour CM. Willingness to take a free home HIV test and associated factors among internet-using men who have sex with men. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 2011;10:357–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 62. Ronda G, Portegijs P, Dinant GJ, Buntinx F, Norg R, van der Weijden T. Use of diagnostic self-tests on body materials among Internet users in the Netherlands: prevalence and correlates of use. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:100. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 63. MacPherson P, Webb EL, Choko AT, et al. Stigmatising attitudes among people offered home-based HIV testing and counselling in Blantyre, Malawi: construction and analysis of a stigma scale. PLoS One. 2011;6:e26814. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 64. Napierala Mavedzenge S, Baggaley R, Lo YR, Corbett E. HIV self-testing among health workers: a review of the literature and discussion of current practices, issues and options for increasing access to HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2011. Available at http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/vct/9789241501033/en/index.html . Accessed 14 September 2011. 65. Becker S, Gray R. Source of new infections in generalised HIV epidemics. Lancet. 2008;372:1299–300. [PubMed] 66. Cohen MS, Gay CL, Busch MP, Hecht FM. The detection of acute HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2010;202 (Suppl 2):S270–7. Epub 2010/09/25. [PubMed]
67. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS; 2010. 2010 report on the global AIDS epidemic.
69. Brooks RA, Etzel MA, Hinojos E, Henry CL, Perez M. Preventing HIV among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men in a context of HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia: perspectives of providers. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19:737–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 70. Gold RS, Karantzas G. Thought processes associated with reluctance in gay men to be tested for HIV. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:775–9. [PubMed] 71. Montaner JS, Hogg R, Wood E, et al. The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet. 2006;368:531–6. [PubMed] 72. Granich RM, Gilks CF, Dye C, De Cock KM, Williams BG. Universal voluntary HIV testing with immediate antiretroviral therapy as a strategy for elimination of HIV transmission: a mathematical model. Lancet. 2009;373:48–57. [PubMed] 73. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2012. Guidance on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for serodiscordant couples, men and transgender women who have sex with men at high risk of HIV. Recommendations for use in the context of demonstration projects. [PubMed] 74. Obermeyer CM, Osborn M. The utilization of testing and counseling for HIV: a review of the social and behavioral evidence. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1762–74. [PubMed]