PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Mol Cell Biol. 1988 November; 8(11): 4949–4957.
PMCID: PMC365588

Copy number and partition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 micron plasmid controlled by transcription regulators.

Abstract

The 2 micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is maintained by the action of plasmid-encoded gene products that control copy number and promote equipartition of plasmid copies at cell division. We show that the REP1 and REP2 plasmid-encoded gene products are master regulators that act in concert to autoregulate the level of their own transcripts and to regulate transcript levels of the FLP gene that promotes plasmid copy amplification. REP1 and REP2 are also shown to repress transcription at REP3, the cis-acting site essential for plasmid equipartitioning. We propose a model in which REP3 acts by dislodging transcription apparatuses that otherwise cause plasmid molecules to adhere to the mother nucleus and segregate asymmetrically. On the basis of their ability to generate specific chromatin structures, we also propose that the REP1 and REP2 gene products interact with different specific sequences found iterated in the 2 micron plasmid.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abulafia R, Ben-Ze'ev A, Hay N, Aloni Y. Control of late simian virus 40 transcription by the attenuation mechanism and transcriptionally active ternary complexes are associated with the nuclear matrix. J Mol Biol. 1984 Feb 5;172(4):467–487. [PubMed]
  • Broach JR. The yeast plasmid 2 mu circle. Cell. 1982 Feb;28(2):203–204. [PubMed]
  • Broach JR, Guarascio VR, Jayaram M. Recombination within the yeast plasmid 2mu circle is site-specific. Cell. 1982 May;29(1):227–234. [PubMed]
  • Church GM, Gilbert W. Genomic sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Apr;81(7):1991–1995. [PubMed]
  • Fagrelius TJ, Strand AD, Livingston DM. Changes in the DNase I sensitivity of DNA sequences within the yeast 2 micron plasmid nucleoprotein complex effected by plasmid-encoded products. J Mol Biol. 1987 Oct 5;197(3):415–423. [PubMed]
  • Fangman WL, Hice RH, Chlebowicz-Sledziewska E. ARS replication during the yeast S phase. Cell. 1983 Mar;32(3):831–838. [PubMed]
  • Fitzgerald-Hayes M. Yeast centromeres. Yeast. 1987 Sep;3(3):187–200. [PubMed]
  • Futcher AB. Copy number amplification of the 2 micron circle plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Theor Biol. 1986 Mar 21;119(2):197–204. [PubMed]
  • Futcher AB. The 2 micron circle plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1988 Mar;4(1):27–40. [PubMed]
  • Futcher AB, Cox BS. Maintenance of the 2 microns circle plasmid in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1983 May;154(2):612–622. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Futcher AB, Cox BS. Copy number and the stability of 2-micron circle-based artificial plasmids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1984 Jan;157(1):283–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hartley JL, Donelson JE. Nucleotide sequence of the yeast plasmid. Nature. 1980 Aug 28;286(5776):860–865. [PubMed]
  • Hartwell LH, Smith D. Altered fidelity of mitotic chromosome transmission in cell cycle mutants of S. cerevisiae. Genetics. 1985 Jul;110(3):381–395. [PubMed]
  • Hicks JB, Herskowitz I. Interconversion of Yeast Mating Types I. Direct Observations of the Action of the Homothallism (HO) Gene. Genetics. 1976 Jun;83(2):245–258. [PubMed]
  • Hutchison N, Weintraub H. Localization of DNAase I-sensitive sequences to specific regions of interphase nuclei. Cell. 1985 Dec;43(2 Pt 1):471–482. [PubMed]
  • Ito H, Fukuda Y, Murata K, Kimura A. Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations. J Bacteriol. 1983 Jan;153(1):163–168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jackson DA, Cook PR. Transcription occurs at a nucleoskeleton. EMBO J. 1985 Apr;4(4):919–925. [PubMed]
  • Jayaram M, Li YY, Broach JR. The yeast plasmid 2mu circle encodes components required for its high copy propagation. Cell. 1983 Aug;34(1):95–104. [PubMed]
  • Jayaram M, Sutton A, Broach JR. Properties of REP3: a cis-acting locus required for stable propagation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmid 2 microns circle. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Sep;5(9):2466–2475. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jost JP, Seldran M. Association of transcriptionally active vitellogenin II gene with the nuclear matrix of chicken liver. EMBO J. 1984 Sep;3(9):2005–2008. [PubMed]
  • Kikuchi Y. Yeast plasmid requires a cis-acting locus and two plasmid proteins for its stable maintenance. Cell. 1983 Dec;35(2 Pt 1):487–493. [PubMed]
  • Koshland D, Kent JC, Hartwell LH. Genetic analysis of the mitotic transmission of minichromosomes. Cell. 1985 Feb;40(2):393–403. [PubMed]
  • Livingston DM, Kupfer DM. Control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2microN DNA replication by cell division cycle genes that control nuclear DNA replication. J Mol Biol. 1977 Oct 25;116(2):249–260. [PubMed]
  • Marczynski GT, Jaehning JA. A transcription map of a yeast centromere plasmid: unexpected transcripts and altered gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Dec 9;13(23):8487–8506. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray AW, Szostak JW. Pedigree analysis of plasmid segregation in yeast. Cell. 1983 Oct;34(3):961–970. [PubMed]
  • Murray JA. Bending the rules: the 2-mu plasmid of yeast. Mol Microbiol. 1987 Jul;1(1):1–4. [PubMed]
  • Murray JA, Cesareni G. Functional analysis of the yeast plasmid partition locus STB. EMBO J. 1986 Dec 1;5(12):3391–3399. [PubMed]
  • Murray JA, Scarpa M, Rossi N, Cesareni G. Antagonistic controls regulate copy number of the yeast 2 mu plasmid. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 20;6(13):4205–4212. [PubMed]
  • Nasmyth K, Seddon A, Ammerer G. Cell cycle regulation of SW15 is required for mother-cell-specific HO transcription in yeast. Cell. 1987 May 22;49(4):549–558. [PubMed]
  • Belfort M, Pedersen-Lane J. Genetic system for analyzing Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase. J Bacteriol. 1984 Oct;160(1):371–378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reynolds AE, Murray AW, Szostak JW. Roles of the 2 microns gene products in stable maintenance of the 2 microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Oct;7(10):3566–3573. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Robinson SI, Small D, Idzerda R, McKnight GS, Vogelstein B. The association of transcriptionally active genes with the nuclear matrix of the chicken oviduct. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Aug 11;11(15):5113–5130. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Som T, Armstrong KA, Volkert FC, Broach JR. Autoregulation of 2 micron circle gene expression provides a model for maintenance of stable plasmid copy levels. Cell. 1988 Jan 15;52(1):27–37. [PubMed]
  • Stinchcomb DT, Struhl K, Davis RW. Isolation and characterisation of a yeast chromosomal replicator. Nature. 1979 Nov 1;282(5734):39–43. [PubMed]
  • Strathern JN, Herskowitz I. Asymmetry and directionality in production of new cell types during clonal growth: the switching pattern of homothallic yeast. Cell. 1979 Jun;17(2):371–381. [PubMed]
  • Sutton A, Broach JR. Signals for transcription initiation and termination in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmid 2 micron circle. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Oct;5(10):2770–2780. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas PS. Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Sep;77(9):5201–5205. [PubMed]
  • Toh-e A, Guerry-Kopecko P, Wickner RB. A stable plasmid carrying the yeast Leu2 gene and containing only yeast deoxyribonucleic acid. J Bacteriol. 1980 Jan;141(1):413–416. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Veit BE, Fangman WL. Chromatin organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 microns plasmid depends on plasmid-encoded products. Mol Cell Biol. 1985 Sep;5(9):2190–2196. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Volkert FC, Broach JR. Site-specific recombination promotes plasmid amplification in yeast. Cell. 1986 Aug 15;46(4):541–550. [PubMed]
  • Wood JS. Genetic effects of methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Sep;2(9):1064–1079. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zakian VA, Brewer BJ, Fangman WL. Replication of each copy of the yeast 2 micron DNA plasmid occurs during the S phase. Cell. 1979 Aug;17(4):923–934. [PubMed]
  • Zakian VA, Scott JF. Construction, replication, and chromatin structure of TRP1 RI circle, a multiple-copy synthetic plasmid derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Mar;2(3):221–232. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)