Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4H) are iron- and 2-oxoglutamate-dependent dioxygenase enzymes and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-P4Hs play a critical role in the regulating oxygen homeostasis in the local tissues as well in the systemic circulation. Over a period of time, a number of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors and activators have been developed. By employing the pharmacological tools and transgenic knock out animals, the critical role of these enzymes has been established in the pathophysiology of number of diseases including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, neurodegeneration, inflammatory disease, respiratory diseases, retinopathy and others. The present review discusses the different aspects of these enzymes including their pathophysiological role in disease development.
Keywords: Hypoxia inducible factor, Inflammation, Ischemia, Prolyl hydroxylase