Of the 113,522 matriculants in our database who entered medical school from 1994 to 2000, 103,597 had graduated between 1998 and 2004. We excluded 1,232 MD-PhD graduates, one graduate without data for degree program at graduation, 17,122 graduates classified as residents, and 207 graduates who were missing these classification data according to AMA Physician Masterfile records, leaving 85,035 graduates eligible for inclusion in our study. Of these 85,035 eligible graduates, we excluded 17,611 graduates who had not responded to all MSQ and GQ items of interest and 535 graduates who had responded to all MSQ and GQ items of interest but were missing other data. Our final study sample of 66,889 graduates with complete data for all variables of interest thus included 78.7% of 85,035 eligible graduates.
Among all 85,035 eligible graduates, 14,964 (17.6%) had held faculty appointments, including 2,926 (16.1%) of the 18,146 whom we excluded, and 12,038 (18.0%) of the 66,889 included in the final sample (P < .001). Among the 85,031 eligible graduates with data for gender (missing for n = 4), 38,729 (45.6%) were women, including 7,815 (43.1%) of the 18,142 we excluded, and 30,914 (46.2%) of the 66,889 included in the final sample (P <.001).
presents descriptive statistics for the entire study sample (N = 66,889) grouped by faculty appointment and grouped by gender. The gender gap in research paper authorship among all graduates in our study sample (as shown in ) was also evident among only the 35,146 graduates who had participated in a medical school research elective; that is, 60.3% of men who had participated in a medical school research elective (12,299/20,380) and 51.9% of women who had participated in a medical school research elective (7,669/14,766) reported research paper authorship (P <.001).
Characteristics of the 66,889 Medical School Graduates, 1998 – 2004 (with Follow-Up Through 2009) Grouped by Faculty Appointment and by Gender*
shows the characteristics of men and women medical school graduates grouped by full-time faculty appointment. As shown, findings for each variable examined were similarly associated with full-time faculty appointment among men and among women with the exception of debt, which was significantly associated with full-time faculty appointment among men but not among women.
Characteristics of the 66,889 Men and Women Medical School Graduates, 1998 – 2004 (with Follow-Up Through 2009) Grouped by Full-Time Faculty Appointment*
shows the results of the three regression models. Among all graduates, women were more likely than men to have held faculty appointments. In all three models, each of the following variables was associated with a greater likelihood of faculty appointment: matriculation into a research-intensive medical school, participation in one or more years of research during GME, USMLE Step l first-attempt passing score, and medical school health-education elective. In all three models, each of the following variables was associated with a lower likelihood of a faculty appointment: a more recent graduation year; Asian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity; URM race/ethnicity; the specialty choices of family medicine, surgery, and dermatology; and GQ career intention of “other,” “undecided,” or “full-time (non-university) clinical practice”.
Multivariable Logistic Regression Models of Variables Associated with Full-Time Faculty Appointment Among All Graduates (N = 66,889), Among Men (n = 35,975), and Among Women (n = 30,914), Each Compared with No Full-Time Faculty Appointment*
Among only male graduates, higher total debt at graduation from medical school was associated with a lower likelihood of a faculty appointment, whereas participating in a laboratory research apprenticeship during college, greater extent of planned career involvement in research at matriculation into medical school, research-paper authorship during medical school, and pediatrics and psychiatry specialty choices were each associated with a greater likelihood of faculty appointment.
Among only female graduates, higher debt at graduation from medical school, participating in a laboratory research apprenticeship during college, greater extent of planned career involvement in research at matriculation into medical school, and research-paper authorship during medical school were not independently associated with likelihood of faculty appointment. The specialty choices of pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and psychiatry were each associated with a lower likelihood of faculty appointment for women.
shows the characteristics of all faculty appointees in the study sample grouped by gender. Male and female faculty appointees differed significantly in their research experiences, specialty choices, and total debt at graduation from medical school, among other characteristics.
Characteristics of 12,038 graduates appointed to full-time faculty positions, grouped by gender*