Of the 10 patients studied, who were aged 9–42 years (mean 23.2 years), 6 were female and 4 were male. This fact corroborates findings reported in the literature that prevalence is higher in females than males.1,2,7
There were three children, two teenagers and five adults.
All patients were carriers of Type I disease (non-neurological), which agrees with other studies showing that it is the most prevalent type, (95–99% of cases).7,8
During the study, all patients were being treated with ERT, as in most other studies.4,7,9
Clinical and radiographic findings varied greatly in the sample. Some clinical data showed no correlation with radiographic images; this is probably owing to the numerous phenotypic manifestations of Type I disease, a fact also reported in the literature.8,9
According to literature findings,2,3,10
the disease is characterized by the classical triad of visceral enlargement (liver and/or splenomegaly), haematological changes and a high incidence of bone changes. Visceral enlargement and haematological changes were present in seven cases. Haematological thrombocytopenia was present in six of the ten patients, but none of them reported prior episodes of bleeding, as had been previously described.9
Only two individuals complained of bone pain, demonstrating the asymptomatic feature of the disease, as mentioned in other studies.8,9
However, the presence of pain, generalized rarefactions and pseudocystic areas adjacent to the periapical region of the maxillofacial complex should be taken into account when diagnosing this disease, and that makes it important to disseminate these findings, especially when pain is not related to periapical lesions.
There were no clinical findings of the following oral manifestations: yellowish pigmentation or petechiae in the mucosa, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, pathological fracture, delay in bone deposition in wound healing, post-operative infection, spontaneous bleeding (epistaxis or gingival bleeding) and post-surgical bleeding, contradicting some authors who have reported one or more of these as findings.1,4,5,7,9,10
The most relevant radiographic manifestations included generalized bone rarefaction, enlarged marrow spaces, cortical thinning, osteoesclerosis, radiolucent pseudocystic lesions, demineralization of the mental region, effacement of anatomical structures and the maxillary sinus and TMJ involvement, which is in agreement with several studies.1,3,4,5,7,9
Panoramic radiographs revealed mandible changes in all cases and maxillary complications in eight. In CBCT, manifestations were observed in the mandible in all samples and in the maxilla in six, with no cases of maxillary involvement alone. These findings are consistent with other studies that showed the mandible as the most affected bone in almost 100% of the sample, with no cases of maxillary involvement alone.4,5,7
These data suggested that some plain radiographic findings were not observed in CT images, probably because of overlapping structures on the plain radiographs.
The most common findings on plain radiographs were enlarged marrow spaces and cortical thinning, also seen on previous findings,4,5
whereas CBCT images showed a high incidence of generalized rarefaction, enlarged marrow spaces and pseudocystic lesions.
Generalized rarefactions were presented on 6 plain radiographs and 10 CBCT images, agreeing with the findings that rarefactions were detected in all cases,5,7
but disagreeing with Bender and Bender,4
who observed generalized rarefactions in only 5 of 28 patients. Enlarged marrow spaces were observed in ten CBCT and nine plain radiographs, agreeing with other studies.4,7
Cortical thinning was observed in nine plain radiographs, but in only five CT images. It has not been reported in the literature,7
but was observed in only 2 of 28 cases.4
However, this study agrees with another paper that showed this manifestation as one of the most prevalent findings at both early and advanced stages.5
Pseudocystic lesions were presented in one panoramic radiograph, but visualized in nine cases by means of CBCT images. This could be a result of overlapping characteristics of the panoramic images yielding a false-negative result. Lesions with a pseudocystic pattern represent the increase in pathognomonic marrow spaces due to the accumulation of Gaucher cells, which increase intraosseous pressure and compromise the vascularity of the area by extrinsic compression or occlusion of these vessels.4,6
Another unusual finding was mental demineralization, present in three plain radiographs and seven CBCT images, probably because of the overlapping explained above. The presence of demineralization corroborates with other clinical cases.4
These results have clinical significance. The presence of generalized rarefactions, enlarged marrow spaces, pseudocystics lesions, cortical thinning and mental demineralization in GD patients may have important significance in surgical procedures such as fixation of implants, removal of bone grafting, orthognathic surgery and other procedures. It is critical that the dentist knows of these bone changes in patients with GD.
Effacement of anatomical structures such as the path of the mandibular canal, mental foramen, maxillary sinus floor and lamina dura was observed in four plain radiographs, although in CBCT such difficulties occurred in eight cases. The most commonly affected structure was the mandibular canal, which disappeared in areas of intense radiolucency. This result corroborates previous findings of effacement of the mandibular canal in more than 50% of samples.4,7
Signs of osteosclerosis were present on six panoramic radiographies and five CBCT images, most commonly in the mandible, probably due to a chronic widespread reaction against the initial infiltration of Gaucher cells. This fact concurs with a few findings6
and differs from others.4,5,7
Areas of radio-opacity may suggest infiltration of cells or a temporary reaction against the bone (cases of tooth extractions or recent splenectomy),5
but such situations do not apply to any cases in our sample. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the GD group and the control group, which may suggest attenuated involvement, or non-participation of Gaucher cells in this phenomenon.
Flattening of the condyle was the predominant TMJ manifestation, which occurred in seven panoramic radiographs and in only one CBCT image. Thus, many cases that might suggest flattening of the condyle have been demystified by the visualization of sagittal and axial slices in tomography, implying that panoramic views give false-positive results. Comparing the control group with the GD group, we observed a statistically significant difference for changes in TMJ CBCT. Some previous work has highlighted that tomography seems to have a minimal effect on the diagnosis or management of temporomandibular disorders.11,12
Therefore, other methods of diagnostic imaging associated with clinical examination should be used to validate our findings in relation to the TMJ. No previous study has analysed this condition among Gaucher patients.
The presence of radio-opaque images suggesting partial or total obliteration was observed in the maxillary sinus region, agreeing with other clinical cases previously described,8,13
but disagreeing with others that did not detect involvement of the paranasal sinuses.4
This finding occurred on eight plain radiographs, but was confirmed in only three cases by CBCT images. Authors who have used panoramic radiographs3,7,8
usually suggest that partial or total obliteration of the maxillary sinus is due to hyperplasia of the medullary portion by infiltration of Gaucher cells. But this study also found thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa using CBCT and effacement on the limits of the cortical floor of the maxillary sinus (probably owing to environmental causes). These findings were previously unreported.
Comparing the patient group with the control group by means of panoramic images, three manifestations had statistically significant differences: generalized osteopenia, enlarged marrow spaces and effacement of anatomical structures. On the other hand, when CBCT was analysed, 7 of the 11 findings studied had a higher incidence in the patient group than in the healthy population: generalized osteopenia, enlarged marrow spaces, cortical thinning, pseudocystic lesions, mental demineralization, TMJ involvement and effacement of anatomical structures. Therefore, it is easy to provide evidence of CBCT superiority for diagnostic efficacy expressed as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.
The literature in this area consists of case reports or studies with very small sample groups.1,5,6,8
Another difficulty concerns the methodology used to obtain such reports, the majority being chiefly made up of plain radiographs (panoramic and cephalometric). From this point of view, this study is the first to use CBCT to analyse the details of the images in a group of patients with GD. A few other isolated case report studies have used conventional computer-based tomography and periapical radiographs.11,12
Finally, the results of the study agree largely with clinical and imaging findings described in the literature. Flattening of the condyle, thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa and effacement of the cortical floor of the maxillary sinus were first described in these patients. Although these findings can be observed in the general population, the incidence among Gaucher patients was higher, probably because the disease exacerbated the condition, owing to bone involvement.
In conclusion, patients showed important bone manifestations in 100% of the survey. CBCT can accurately help in evaluating maxillofacial manifestations in GD, establishing data which are not clear in conventional radiographs, especially for the diagnosis and surgical planning of patients with GD. Some clinical data such as visceral and haematological involvement could not be correlated with the radiological findings of bone changes, probably for two reasons: multiple phenotypes of the disease and its asymptomatic course. Finally, a multicentre study is necessary to better comprehend GD maxillofacial involvement.