We have determined the different Fos/Jun complexes present in Swiss 3T3 cells either following serum stimulation of quiescent cells or during exponential growth by immunoprecipitation analyses. We have shown that while c-Fos is the major Fos protein associated with the Jun proteins (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) soon after serum stimulation, at later times Fra-1 and Fra-2 are the predominant Fos proteins associated with the different Jun proteins. During exponential growth, the synthesis of Fra-1 and Fra-2 is maintained at a significant level, in contrast to c-Fos and FosB, which are expressed at very low or undetectable levels. Consequently, Fra-1 and Fra-2 are the main Fos proteins complexed with the Jun proteins in asynchronously growing cells. To determine whether the Fos proteins are differentially required during the G0-to-G1 transition and exponential growth for the entrance into S phase, we microinjected affinity-purified antibodies directed against c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, and Fra-2. We have found that while the activities of c-Fos and FosB are required mostly during the G0-to-G1 transition, Fra-1 and Fra-2 are involved both in the G0-to-G1 transition and in asynchronous growth.