Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. 1991 June; 11(6): 3317–3325.
PMCID: PMC360184

The human CCG1 gene, essential for progression of the G1 phase, encodes a 210-kilodalton nuclear DNA-binding protein.


The human CCG1 gene complements tsBN462, a temperature-sensitive G1 mutant of the BHK21 cell line. The previously cloned cDNA turned out to be a truncated form of the actual CCG1 cDNA. The newly cloned CCG1 cDNA was 6.0 kb and encoded a protein with a molecular mass of 210 kDa. Using an antibody to a predicted peptide from the CCG1 protein, a protein with a molecular mass of over 200 kDa was identified in human, monkey, and hamster cell lines. In the newly defined C-terminal region, an acidic domain was found. It contained four consensus target sequences for casein kinase II and was phosphorylated by this enzyme in vitro. However, this C-terminal region was not required to complement tsBN462 mutation since the region encoding the C-terminal part was frequently missing in complemented clones derived by DNA-mediated gene transfer. CCG1 contains a sequence similar to the putative DNA-binding domain of HMG1 in addition to the previously detected amino acid sequences common in nuclear proteins, such as a proline cluster and a nuclear translocation signal. Consistent with these predictions, CCG1 was present in nuclei, possessed DNA-binding activity, and was eluted with similar concentrations of salt, 0.3 to 0.4 M NaCl either from isolated nuclei or from a DNA-cellulose column.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ackerman P, Glover CV, Osheroff N. Phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II in vivo and in total homogenates of Drosophila Kc cells. The role of casein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 1988 Sep 5;263(25):12653–12660. [PubMed]
  • Barbosa MS, Edmonds C, Fisher C, Schiller JT, Lowy DR, Vousden KH. The region of the HPV E7 oncoprotein homologous to adenovirus E1a and Sv40 large T antigen contains separate domains for Rb binding and casein kinase II phosphorylation. EMBO J. 1990 Jan;9(1):153–160. [PubMed]
  • Basilico C. Temperature-sensitive mutations in animal cells. Adv Cancer Res. 1977;24:223–266. [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Brown CJ, Sekiguchi T, Nishimoto T, Willard HF. Regional localization of CCG1 gene which complements hamster cell cycle mutation BN462 to Xq11-Xq13. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1989 Jan;15(1):93–96. [PubMed]
  • Burnette WN. "Western blotting": electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gels to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated protein A. Anal Biochem. 1981 Apr;112(2):195–203. [PubMed]
  • Dahmus ME. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Identification of calf thymus RNA polymerase subunits phosphorylated by two purified protein kinases, correlation with in vivo sites of phosphorylation in HeLa cell RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 1981 Apr 10;256(7):3332–3339. [PubMed]
  • Edelman AM, Blumenthal DK, Krebs EG. Protein serine/threonine kinases. Annu Rev Biochem. 1987;56:567–613. [PubMed]
  • Fiol CJ, Mahrenholz AM, Wang Y, Roeske RW, Roach PJ. Formation of protein kinase recognition sites by covalent modification of the substrate. Molecular mechanism for the synergistic action of casein kinase II and glycogen synthase kinase 3. J Biol Chem. 1987 Oct 15;262(29):14042–14048. [PubMed]
  • Frohman MA, Dush MK, Martin GR. Rapid production of full-length cDNAs from rare transcripts: amplification using a single gene-specific oligonucleotide primer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):8998–9002. [PubMed]
  • Gluzman Y. SV40-transformed simian cells support the replication of early SV40 mutants. Cell. 1981 Jan;23(1):175–182. [PubMed]
  • Hartwell LH, Culotti J, Pringle JR, Reid BJ. Genetic control of the cell division cycle in yeast. Science. 1974 Jan 11;183(4120):46–51. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Chamberlin MJ. Structure and function of bacterial sigma factors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988;57:839–872. [PubMed]
  • Jantzen HM, Admon A, Bell SP, Tjian R. Nucleolar transcription factor hUBF contains a DNA-binding motif with homology to HMG proteins. Nature. 1990 Apr 26;344(6269):830–836. [PubMed]
  • Kalderon D, Roberts BL, Richardson WD, Smith AE. A short amino acid sequence able to specify nuclear location. Cell. 1984 Dec;39(3 Pt 2):499–509. [PubMed]
  • Liu HT, Gibson CW, Hirschhorn RR, Rittling S, Baserga R, Mercer WE. Expression of thymidine kinase and dihydrofolate reductase genes in mammalian ts mutants of the cell cycle. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 25;260(6):3269–3274. [PubMed]
  • Lüscher B, Christenson E, Litchfield DW, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. Myb DNA binding inhibited by phosphorylation at a site deleted during oncogenic activation. Nature. 1990 Apr 5;344(6266):517–522. [PubMed]
  • Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II. EMBO J. 1989 Apr;8(4):1111–1119. [PubMed]
  • Mermod N, O'Neill EA, Kelly TJ, Tjian R. The proline-rich transcriptional activator of CTF/NF-I is distinct from the replication and DNA binding domain. Cell. 1989 Aug 25;58(4):741–753. [PubMed]
  • Nishimoto T, Sekiguchi T, Kai R, Yamashita K, Takahashi T, Sekiguchi M. Large-scale selection and analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants for cell reproduction from BHK cells. Somatic Cell Genet. 1982 Nov;8(6):811–824. [PubMed]
  • Nurse P, Thuriaux P, Nasmyth K. Genetic control of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Gen Genet. 1976 Jul 23;146(2):167–178. [PubMed]
  • Ohtsubo M, Kai R, Furuno N, Sekiguchi T, Sekiguchi M, Hayashida H, Kuma K, Miyata T, Fukushige S, Murotsu T, et al. Isolation and characterization of the active cDNA of the human cell cycle gene (RCC1) involved in the regulation of onset of chromosome condensation. Genes Dev. 1987 Aug;1(6):585–593. [PubMed]
  • Ohtsubo M, Okazaki H, Nishimoto T. The RCC1 protein, a regulator for the onset of chromosome condensation locates in the nucleus and binds to DNA. J Cell Biol. 1989 Oct;109(4 Pt 1):1389–1397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prescott DM. The cell cycle and the control of cellular reproduction. Adv Genet. 1976;18:99–177. [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988 Jan 29;239(4839):487–491. [PubMed]
  • Rüther U, Müller-Hill B. Easy identification of cDNA clones. EMBO J. 1983;2(10):1791–1794. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PubMed]
  • Santoro C, Mermod N, Andrews PC, Tjian R. A family of human CCAAT-box-binding proteins active in transcription and DNA replication: cloning and expression of multiple cDNAs. Nature. 1988 Jul 21;334(6179):218–224. [PubMed]
  • Schluter SF, Marchalonis JJ. Antibodies to synthetic joining segment peptide of the T-cell receptor beta-chain: serological cross-reaction between products of T-cell receptor genes, antigen binding T-cell receptors, and immunoglobulins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Mar;83(6):1872–1876. [PubMed]
  • Sekiguchi T, Miyata T, Nishimoto T. Molecular cloning of the cDNA of human X chromosomal gene (CCG1) which complements the temperature-sensitive G1 mutants, tsBN462 and ts13, of the BHK cell line. EMBO J. 1988 Jun;7(6):1683–1687. [PubMed]
  • Sekiguchi T, Yoshida MC, Sekiguchi M, Nishimoto T. Isolation of a human X chromosome-linked gene essential for progression from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Exp Cell Res. 1987 Apr;169(2):395–407. [PubMed]
  • Shinkawa K, Nakajo S, Nakaya K, Nakamura Y. Purification of substrate proteins of casein kinases from the cytosol fraction of AH-66 hepatoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Oct 1;930(3):446–453. [PubMed]
  • Sommercorn J, Mulligan JA, Lozeman FJ, Krebs EG. Activation of casein kinase II in response to insulin and to epidermal growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(24):8834–8838. [PubMed]
  • Suzuki M. SPXX, a frequent sequence motif in gene regulatory proteins. J Mol Biol. 1989 May 5;207(1):61–84. [PubMed]
  • Th'ng JP, Wright PS, Hamaguchi J, Lee MG, Norbury CJ, Nurse P, Bradbury EM. The FT210 cell line is a mouse G2 phase mutant with a temperature-sensitive CDC2 gene product. Cell. 1990 Oct 19;63(2):313–324. [PubMed]
  • Williams T, Admon A, Lüscher B, Tjian R. Cloning and expression of AP-2, a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements. Genes Dev. 1988 Dec;2(12A):1557–1569. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)