Subnuclear fractionation and coprecipitation by antibodies against the nucleolar protein NOP1 demonstrate that the essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA snR30 is localized to the nucleolus. By using aminomethyl trimethyl-psoralen, snR30 can be cross-linked in vivo to 35S pre-rRNA. To determine whether snR30 has a role in rRNA processing, a conditional allele was constructed by replacing the authentic SNR30 promoter with the GAL10 promoter. Repression of snR30 synthesis results in a rapid depletion of snR30 and a progressive increase in cell doubling time. rRNA processing is disrupted during the depletion of snR30; mature 18S rRNA and its 20S precursor underaccumulate, and an aberrant 23S pre-rRNA intermediate can be detected. Initial results indicate that this 23S pre-rRNA is the same as the species detected on depletion of the small nucleolar RNA-associated proteins NOP1 and GAR1 and in an snr10 mutant strain. It was found that the 3' end of 23S pre-rRNA is located in the 3' region of ITS1 between cleavage sites A2 and B1 and not, as previously suggested, at the B1 site, snR30 is the fourth small nucleolar RNA shown to play a role in rRNA processing.