PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of cmrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalCMR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 January; 3(1): 66–98.
PMCID: PMC358141

Toxigenic clostridia.

Abstract

Toxigenic clostridia belonging to 13 recognized species are discussed in this review. Each species or group of organisms is, in general, introduced by presenting the historical aspects of its discovery by early investigators of human and animal diseases. The diseases caused by each species or group are described and usually discussed in relation to the toxins involved in the pathology. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the organisms are described. Finally, the toxins produced by each organism are listed, with a presentation of their biological activities and physical and biochemical characteristics. The complete amino acid sequences for some are known, and some of the genes have been cloned. The term toxin is used loosely to include the various antigenic protein products of these organisms with biological and serological activities which have served as distinguishing characteristics for differentiation and classification. Some of these factors are not truly toxic and have no known role in pathogenicity. Some of the interesting factors common to more than one species or group are the following: neurotoxins, lethal toxins, lecithinases, oxygen-labile hemolysins, binary toxins, and ADP-ribosyltransferases. Problems in bacterial nomenclature and designation of biologically active factors are noted.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (6.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • AIKAT BK, DIBLE JH. The local and general effects of cultures and culture-filtrates of Clostridium oedematiens, CL. septicum, CL. sporogenes and CL. histolyticum. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1960 Apr;79:227–241. [PubMed]
  • Aktories K, Bärmann M, Ohishi I, Tsuyama S, Jakobs KH, Habermann E. Botulinum C2 toxin ADP-ribosylates actin. Nature. 1986 Jul 24;322(6077):390–392. [PubMed]
  • Aktories K, Weller U, Chhatwal GS. Clostridium botulinum type C produces a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase distinct from botulinum C2 toxin. FEBS Lett. 1987 Feb 9;212(1):109–113. [PubMed]
  • al-Khatib G. Beiträge zur Clostridiendifferenzierung. II. Die Letalfaktoren der Toxine pathogener Clostridien, ihre Neutralisation und Bedeutung für die Differenzierung. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1968;22(3):659–665. [PubMed]
  • al-Khatib G. Beitrage zur Clostridiendifferenzierung. 6. Zur Differenzierung von Cl. septicum and Cl. chauvoei. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1969 Nov;23(5):963–970. [PubMed]
  • Alouf JE, Jolivet-Reynaud C. Purification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin. Infect Immun. 1981 Feb;31(2):536–546. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alpern RJ, Dowell VR., Jr Clostridium septicum infections and malignancy. JAMA. 1969 Jul 21;209(3):385–388. [PubMed]
  • Altwegg M, Hatheway CL. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of Clostridium argentinense (Clostridium botulinum toxin type G) and phenotypically similar asaccharolytic clostridia. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Nov;26(11):2447–2449. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arbuthnott JP. Role of exotoxins in bacterial pathogenicity. J Appl Bacteriol. 1978 Jun;44(3):329–345. [PubMed]
  • Arnon SS, Midura TF, Damus K, Thompson B, Wood RM, Chin J. Honey and other environmental risk factors for infant botulism. J Pediatr. 1979 Feb;94(2):331–336. [PubMed]
  • Arnon SS, Midura TF, Damus K, Wood RM, Chin J. Intestinal infection and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum as one cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet. 1978 Jun 17;1(8077):1273–1277. [PubMed]
  • Cavanagh P, McPherson K. The thiacetazone sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Med Microbiol. 1969 Aug;2(3):237–242. [PubMed]
  • Arnon SS. Infant botulism: anticipating the second decade. J Infect Dis. 1986 Aug;154(2):201–206. [PubMed]
  • Banga HS, Gupta SK, Feinstein MB. Botulinum toxin D ADP-ribosylates a 22-24 KDa membrane protein in platelets and HL-60 cells that is distinct from p21N-ras. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Aug 30;155(1):263–269. [PubMed]
  • Bartlett JG, Moon N, Chang TW, Taylor N, Onderdonk AB. Role of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Gastroenterology. 1978 Nov;75(5):778–782. [PubMed]
  • Baskerville M, Wood M, Seamer JH. Clostridium perfringens type E enterotoxaemia in rabbits. Vet Rec. 1980 Jul 5;107(1):18–19. [PubMed]
  • BATTY I, WALKER PD. Differentiation of Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei by the use of fluorescent labelled antibodies. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1963 Apr;85:517–521. [PubMed]
  • Beland S, Rossier E. Isolement et identification de Clostridium tetani dans le sol des Cantons de l'Est de la province de Québec. Can J Microbiol. 1973 Dec;19(12):1513–1518. [PubMed]
  • Berger SA, Cherubin CE, Nelson S, Levine L. Tetanus despite preexisting antitetanus antibody. JAMA. 1978 Aug 25;240(8):769–770. [PubMed]
  • Bernheimer AW. PARALLELISM IN THE LETHAL AND HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM SEPTICUM. J Exp Med. 1944 Oct 1;80(4):309–320. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berry PR, Rodhouse JC, Hughes S, Bartholomew BA, Gilbert RJ. Evaluation of ELISA, RPLA, and Vero cell assays for detecting Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in faecal specimens. J Clin Pathol. 1988 Apr;41(4):458–461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bhown AS, Habeerb AF. Structural studies on epsilon-prototoxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. Localization of the site of tryptic scission necessary for activation to epsilon-toxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977 Oct 10;78(3):889–896. [PubMed]
  • Bigalke H, Müller H, Dreyer F. Botulinum A neurotoxin unlike tetanus toxin acts via a neuraminidase sensitive structure. Toxicon. 1986;24(11-12):1065–1074. [PubMed]
  • Bizzini B. Tetanus toxin. Microbiol Rev. 1979 Jun;43(2):224–240. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BLADEN HA, NYLEN MU, FITZGERALD RJ. INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF A EUBACTERIUM SP. DEMONSTRATED BY THE NEGATIVE STAINING TECHNIQUE. J Bacteriol. 1964 Sep;88:763–770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bleck TP. Pharmacology of tetanus. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1986;9(2):103–120. [PubMed]
  • Bond MD, Van Wart HE. Purification and separation of individual collagenases of Clostridium histolyticum using red dye ligand chromatography. Biochemistry. 1984 Jun 19;23(13):3077–3085. [PubMed]
  • Bond MD, Van Wart HE. Characterization of the individual collagenases from Clostridium histolyticum. Biochemistry. 1984 Jun 19;23(13):3085–3091. [PubMed]
  • Bond MD, Van Wart HE. Relationship between the individual collagenases of Clostridium histolyticum: evidence for evolution by gene duplication. Biochemistry. 1984 Jun 19;23(13):3092–3099. [PubMed]
  • Borriello SP, Carman RJ. Association of iota-like toxin and Clostridium spiroforme with both spontaneous and antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol. 1983 Mar;17(3):414–418. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Borriello SP, Larson HE, Welch AR, Barclay F, Stringer MF, Bartholomew BA. Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens: a possible cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Lancet. 1984 Feb 11;1(8372):305–307. [PubMed]
  • BOWEN HE. A comparison of the lethal and hemolytic toxins of Clostridium histolyticum. Yale J Biol Med. 1952 Nov;25(2):131–138. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brin MF, Fahn S, Moskowitz C, Friedman A, Shale HM, Greene PE, Blitzer A, List T, Lange D, Lovelace RE, et al. Localized injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Mov Disord. 1987;2(4):237–254. [PubMed]
  • Browdie DA, Davis JH, Koplewitz MJ, Corday L, Leadbetter AW. Clostridium sordelli infection. J Trauma. 1975 Jun;15(6):515–518. [PubMed]
  • Burke GS. Notes on Bacillus botulinus. J Bacteriol. 1919 Sep;4(5):555–570.1. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Buxton D. Further studies on the mode of action of Clostridium welchii type-D epsilon toxin. J Med Microbiol. 1978 Aug;11(3):293–298. [PubMed]
  • Carman RJ, Borriello SP. Clostridium spiroforme isolated from rabbits with diarrhoea. Vet Rec. 1982 Nov 13;111(20):461–462. [PubMed]
  • Carman RJ, Borriello SP. Infectious nature of Clostridium spiroforme-mediated rabbit enterotoxaemia. Vet Microbiol. 1984 Sep;9(5):497–502. [PubMed]
  • Cato EP, Hash DE, Holdeman LV, Moore WE. Electrophoretic study of Clostridium species. J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Apr;15(4):688–702. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chia JK, Clark JB, Ryan CA, Pollack M. Botulism in an adult associated with food-borne intestinal infection with Clostridium botulinum. N Engl J Med. 1986 Jul 24;315(4):239–241. [PubMed]
  • Claus KD, Kolbe DR. Immunogenicity of Clostridium septicum in guinea pigs. Am J Vet Res. 1979 Dec;40(12):1752–1756. [PubMed]
  • Cowell JL, Grushoff-Kosyk PS, Bernheimer AW. Purification of cereolysin and the electrophoretic separation of the active (reduced) and inactive (oxidized) forms of the purified toxin. Infect Immun. 1976 Jul;14(1):144–154. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • CRAIG JP, MILES AA. Some properties of the iota-toxin of Clostridium welchii, including its action on capillary permeability. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1961 Apr;81:481–493. [PubMed]
  • Darakhshan H, Lauerman LH. Some properties of beta toxin produced by Clostridium haemolyticum strain IRP-135. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1981;4(3-4):307–316. [PubMed]
  • Dasgupta BR, Datta A. Botulinum neurotoxin type B (strain 657): partial sequence and similarity with tetanus toxin. Biochimie. 1988 Jun;70(6):811–817. [PubMed]
  • DasGupta BR, Woody MA. Amino acid composition of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin. Toxicon. 1984;22(2):312–315. [PubMed]
  • DasGupta BR, Rasmussen S. Purification and amino acid composition of type E botulinum neurotoxin. Toxicon. 1983;21(4):535–545. [PubMed]
  • DasGupta BE, Rasmussen S. Amino acid composition of Clostridium botulinum type F neurotoxin. Toxicon. 1983;21(4):566–569. [PubMed]
  • DasGupta BR, Sathyamoorthy V. Purification and amino acid composition of type A botulinum neurotoxin. Toxicon. 1984;22(3):415–424. [PubMed]
  • DAVIS JB, MATTMAN LH, WILEY M. Clostridium botulinum in a fatal wound infection. J Am Med Assoc. 1951 Jun 16;146(7):646–648. [PubMed]
  • Decker K, Jungermann K, Thauer RK. Energy production in anaerobic organisms. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 1970 Feb;9(2):138–158. [PubMed]
  • Dezfulian M, Hatheway CL, Yolken RH, Bartlett JG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Clostridium botulinum type A and type B toxins in stool samples of infants with botulism. J Clin Microbiol. 1984 Sep;20(3):379–383. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DISCHE FE, ELEK SD. Experimental food-poisoning by Clostridium welchii. Lancet. 1957 Jul 13;273(6985):71–74. [PubMed]
  • Dolman CE, Chang E. Bacteriophages of Clostridium botulinum. Can J Microbiol. 1972 Jan;18(1):67–76. [PubMed]
  • Dowell VR, Jr, McCroskey LM, Hatheway CL, Lombard GL, Hughes JM, Merson MH. Coproexamination for botulinal toxin and clostridium botulinum. A new procedure for laboratory diagnosis of botulism. JAMA. 1977 Oct 24;238(17):1829–1832. [PubMed]
  • Duncan CL, Strong DH. Ileal loop fluid accumulation and production of diarrhea in rabbits by cell-free products of Clostridium perfringens. J Bacteriol. 1969 Oct;100(1):86–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Duncan CL, Strong DH, Sebald M. Sporulation and enterotoxin production by mutants of Clostridium perfringens. J Bacteriol. 1972 Apr;110(1):378–391. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • von Eichel-Streiber C, Harperath U, Bosse D, Hadding U. Purification of two high molecular weight toxins of Clostridium difficile which are antigenically related. Microb Pathog. 1987 May;2(5):307–318. [PubMed]
  • Eisel U, Jarausch W, Goretzki K, Henschen A, Engels J, Weller U, Hudel M, Habermann E, Niemann H. Tetanus toxin: primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins. EMBO J. 1986 Oct;5(10):2495–2502. [PubMed]
  • LAYTON WM, Jr, HALLESY DW. DEFORMITY OF FORELIMB IN RATS: ASSOCIATION WITH HIGH DOSES OF ACETAZOLAMIDE. Science. 1965 Jul 16;149(3681):306–308. [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT. Activation of a toxic component of Clostridium botulinum types C and D by trypsin. Appl Microbiol. 1972 Jul;24(1):108–113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT. Interconversion of type C and D strains of Clostridium botulinum by specific bacteriophages. Appl Microbiol. 1974 Jan;27(1):251–258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT, Boatman ES. Bacteriophages of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F and nontoxigenic strains resembling type E. J Virol. 1969 Feb;3(2):270–274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT, Meyers JA, Pelroy GA. Interspecies conversion of Clostridium botulinum type C to Clostridium novyi type A by bacteriophage. Science. 1974 Nov 1;186(4162):456–458. [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT, Mseitif LM, Strom MS. Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin and bacteriocin production in Clostridium botulinum type G. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jun;54(6):1405–1408. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eklund MW, Poysky FT, Peterson ME, Meyers JA. Relationship of bacteriophages to alpha toxin production in Clostridium novyi types A and B. Infect Immun. 1976 Sep;14(3):793–803. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fairweather NF, Lyness VA. The complete nucleotide sequence of tetanus toxin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Oct 10;14(19):7809–7812. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finn CW, Jr, Silver RP, Habig WH, Hardegree MC, Zon G, Garon CF. The structural gene for tetanus neurotoxin is on a plasmid. Science. 1984 May 25;224(4651):881–884. [PubMed]
  • Fitzgerald RJ, McBride JA, Jordon HV. Helically coiled micro-organism from caecum contents of the rat. Nature. 1965 Mar 13;205(976):1133–1134. [PubMed]
  • Gadalla MS, Collee JG. The relationship of the neuraminidase of Clostridium septicum to the haemagglutinin and other soluble products of the organism. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1968 Jul;96(1):169–184. [PubMed]
  • Gansel M, Penner R, Dreyer F. Distinct sites of action of clostridial neurotoxins revealed by double-poisoning of mouse motor nerve terminals. Pflugers Arch. 1987 Aug;409(4-5):533–539. [PubMed]
  • Gautier E, Gallusser A, Despland PA. Botulisme infantile. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1989 Jun;43(5-6):521–530. [PubMed]
  • George WL, Sutter VL, Citron D, Finegold SM. Selective and differential medium for isolation of Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 1979 Feb;9(2):214–219. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Giménez DF, Ciccarelli AS. Studies on strain 84 of Clostridium botulinum. Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig. 1970;215(2):212–220. [PubMed]
  • Giménez JA, Sugiyama H. Comparison of toxins of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium botulinum type E. Infect Immun. 1988 Apr;56(4):926–929. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldner SB, Solberg M, Jones S, Post LS. Enterotoxin synthesis by nonsporulating cultures of Clostridium perfringens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Sep;52(3):407–412. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Granum PE, Whitaker JR, Skjelkvåle R. Trypsin activation of enterotoxin from Clostridium perfringens type A: fragmentation and some physicochemical properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 May 29;668(3):325–332. [PubMed]
  • Gurwith MJ, Langston C, Citron DM. Toxin-producing bacteria in infants. Lack of an association with sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1981 Dec;135(12):1104–1106. [PubMed]
  • Habeeb AF. Studies on epsilon-prototoxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. I. Purification methods: evidence for multiple forms of epsilon-prototoxin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1969 Mar;130(1):430–440. [PubMed]
  • Habeeb AF. Studies on epsilon-prototoxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. Physicochemical and chemical properties of epsilon-prototoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Nov 18;412(1):62–69. [PubMed]
  • Habermann E, Dreyer F. Clostridial neurotoxins: handling and action at the cellular and molecular level. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1986;129:93–179. [PubMed]
  • Hall JD, McCroskey LM, Pincomb BJ, Hatheway CL. Isolation of an organism resembling Clostridium barati which produces type F botulinal toxin from an infant with botulism. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Apr;21(4):654–655. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hara T, Matsuda M, Yoneda M. Isolation and some properties of nontoxigenic derivatives of a strain of Clostridium tetani. Biken J. 1977 Dec;20(3-4):105–115. [PubMed]
  • Hardegree MC, Palmer AE, Duffin N. Tetanolysin: in-vivo effects in animals. J Infect Dis. 1971 Jan;123(1):51–60. [PubMed]
  • Hatheway CL, McCroskey LM. Examination of feces and serum for diagnosis of infant botulism in 336 patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;25(12):2334–2338. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hauschild AH. Criteria and procedures for implicating Clostridium perfringens in food-borne outbreaks. Can J Public Health. 1975 Sep-Oct;66(5):388–392. [PubMed]
  • Hauschild AH, Hilsheimer R. Purification and characteristics of the enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A. Can J Microbiol. 1971 Nov;17(11):1425–1433. [PubMed]
  • Heinzel G, Lenk V, Schneider V. Ergebnisse bakteriologischer Untersuchungen zum plötzlichen unerwarteten Säuglingstod unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Säuglingsbotulismus. Beitr Gerichtl Med. 1985;43:378–380. [PubMed]
  • Helting TB, Zwisler O. Structure of tetanus toxin. I. Breakdown of the toxin molecule and discrimination between polypeptide fragments. J Biol Chem. 1977 Jan 10;252(1):187–193. [PubMed]
  • Hewitt J, Morris JG. Superoxide dismutase in some obligately anaerobic bacteria. FEBS Lett. 1975 Feb 15;50(3):315–318. [PubMed]
  • HOBBS BC, SMITH ME, OAKLEY CL, WARRACK GH, CRUICKSHANK JC. Clostridium welchii food poisoning. J Hyg (Lond) 1953 Mar;51(1):75–101. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hoch DH, Romero-Mira M, Ehrlich BE, Finkelstein A, DasGupta BR, Simpson LL. Channels formed by botulinum, tetanus, and diphtheria toxins in planar lipid bilayers: relevance to translocation of proteins across membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Mar;82(6):1692–1696. [PubMed]
  • Hoffman RE, Pincomb BJ, Skeels MR. Type F infant botulism. Am J Dis Child. 1982 Mar;136(3):270–271. [PubMed]
  • Hogan SF, Ireland K. Fatal acute spontaneous endometritis resulting from Clostridium sordelli. Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 Jan;91(1):104–106. [PubMed]
  • Holmes HT, Sonn RJ, Patton NM. Isolation of Clostridium spiroforme from rabbits. Lab Anim Sci. 1988 Apr;38(2):167–168. [PubMed]
  • Howard FM, Flynn DM, Bradley JM, Noone P, Szawatkowski M. Outbreak of necrotising enterocolitis caused by Clostridium butyricum. Lancet. 1977 Nov 26;2(8048):1099–1102. [PubMed]
  • Inoue K, Iida H. Bacteriophages of Clostridium botulinum. J Virol. 1968 May;2(5):537–540. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iwanejko LA, Routledge MN, Stewart GS. Cloning in Escherichia coli of the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A. J Gen Microbiol. 1989 Apr;135(4):903–909. [PubMed]
  • Iwasaki M, Ohishi I, Sakaguchi G. Evidence that botulinum C2 toxin has two dissimilar components. Infect Immun. 1980 Aug;29(2):390–394. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Izumi N, Kondo H, Ohishi I, Sakaguchi G. Purification and characterization of alpha-toxin of Clostridium oedematiens type A. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1983 Jun;36(3):135–146. [PubMed]
  • Izumi N, Niiro M, Kondo H. Clostridium oedematiens type A toxin: the correlation between the lethal and edematizing activities. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1983 Apr;36(2):67–74. [PubMed]
  • Jansen BC. The toxic antigenic factors produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1971 Jun;38(2):93–98. [PubMed]
  • Jansen BC. The quantitative determination of the toxic factors produced by Clostridium botulinum (Van Ermengem, 1896) types C and D. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1971 Sep;38(3):177–179. [PubMed]
  • Jensen WI, Duncan RM. The susceptibility of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1980 Apr;33(2):81–86. [PubMed]
  • Jolivet-Reynaud C, Moreau H, Alouf JE. Purification of alpha toxin from Clostridium perfringens: phospholipase C. Methods Enzymol. 1988;165:91–94. [PubMed]
  • Kameyama S, Akama K. Purification and some properties of kappa toxin of Clostridium perfringens. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1971 Feb;24(1):9–23. [PubMed]
  • Kameyama S, Sato H, Murata R. The role of alpha-toxin of Clostridium perfringens in experimental gas gangrene in guinea pigs. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1972 Jun;25(3):200–200. [PubMed]
  • King A, Rampling A, Wight DG, Warren RE. Neutropenic enterocolitis due to Clostridium septicum infection. J Clin Pathol. 1984 Mar;37(3):335–343. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kobel T, Marti MC. 100 ans après. Découverte du bacille du tétanos (1884). Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1985 Jun;105(6):547–556. [PubMed]
  • Koopman JP, Kennis HM. Differentiation of bacteria isolated from mouse ceca. Z Versuchstierkd. 1977;19(3):174–181. [PubMed]
  • Kozaki S, Miyazaki S, Sakaguchi G. Structure of Clostridium botulinum type B derivative toxin: inhibition with a fragment of toxin from binding to synaptosomal fraction [proceedings]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1978 Apr;31(2):163–166. [PubMed]
  • Laird WJ, Aaronson W, Silver RP, Habig WH, Hardegree MC. Plasmid-associated toxigenicity in Clostridium tetani. J Infect Dis. 1980 Oct;142(4):623–623. [PubMed]
  • Larson HE, Borriello SP. Infectious diarrhea due to Clostridium perfringens. J Infect Dis. 1988 Feb;157(2):390–391. [PubMed]
  • Larson HE, Price AB, Honour P, Borriello SP. Clostridium difficile and the aetiology of pseudomembranous colitis. Lancet. 1978 May 20;1(8073):1063–1066. [PubMed]
  • Larson HE, Parry JV, Price AB, Davies DR, Dolby J, Tyrrell DA. Undescribed toxin in pseudomembranous colitis. Br Med J. 1977 May 14;1(6071):1246–1248. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laverdière M, Robert A, Chicoine R, Salet D, Rosenfeld R. Clostridia in necrotising enterocolitis. Lancet. 1978 Aug 12;2(8085):377–377. [PubMed]
  • Lawrence G, Cooke R. Experimental pigbel: the production and pathology of necrotizing enteritis due to Clostridium welchii type C in the guinea-pig. Br J Exp Pathol. 1980 Jun;61(3):261–271. [PubMed]
  • Lee WH, Riemann H. Correlation of toxic and non-toxic strains of Clostridium botulinum by DNA composition and homology. J Gen Microbiol. 1970 Jan;60(1):117–123. [PubMed]
  • Lee WH, Riemann H. The genetic relatedness of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains. J Gen Microbiol. 1970 Nov;64(1):85–90. [PubMed]
  • Libby JM, Wilkins TD. Production of antitoxins to two toxins of Clostridium difficile and immunological comparison of the toxins by cross-neutralization studies. Infect Immun. 1982 Jan;35(1):374–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lima AA, Lyerly DM, Wilkins TD, Innes DJ, Guerrant RL. Effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B in rabbit small and large intestine in vivo and on cultured cells in vitro. Infect Immun. 1988 Mar;56(3):582–588. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lindsay D. Clostridium perfringens und Gasbrand. Zentralbl Chir. 1986;111(6):314–323. [PubMed]
  • Long SS, Gajewski JL, Brown LW, Gilligan PH. Clinical, laboratory, and environmental features of infant botulism in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Pediatrics. 1985 May;75(5):935–941. [PubMed]
  • Ludlow CL, Naunton RF, Sedory SE, Schulz GM, Hallett M. Effects of botulinum toxin injections on speech in adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Neurology. 1988 Aug;38(8):1220–1225. [PubMed]
  • Lyerly DM, Krivan HC, Wilkins TD. Clostridium difficile: its disease and toxins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1988 Jan;1(1):1–18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MacDonald KL, Rutherford GW, Friedman SM, Dietz JR, Kaye BR, McKinley GF, Tenney JH, Cohen ML. Botulism and botulism-like illness in chronic drug abusers. Ann Intern Med. 1985 May;102(5):616–618. [PubMed]
  • MacFARLANE MG. The biochemistry of bacterial toxins; the identification and immunological relations of lecithinases present in Clostridium oedematiens and Clostridium sordellii toxins. Biochem J. 1948;42(4):590–595. [PubMed]
  • MACFARLANE MG. The biochemistry of bacterial toxins; the lecithinase activity of Clostridium haemolyticum toxin. Biochem J. 1950 Sep;47(3):267–270. [PubMed]
  • MACFARLANE MG. Clostridium oedematiens n-antigen, an enzyme decomposing tropomyosin. Biochem J. 1955 Oct;61(2):308–315. [PubMed]
  • Macheak ME, Claus KD, Maloy SE. Potency testing Clostridium chauvoei-containing bacterins: relationship of agglutination titers and potency tests in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1972 May;33(5):1053–1058. [PubMed]
  • MACLENNAN JD. The histotoxic clostridial infections of man. Bacteriol Rev. 1962 Jun;26:177–276. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Martinez RD, Wilkins TD. Purification and characterization of Clostridium sordellii hemorrhagic toxin and cross-reactivity with Clostridium difficile toxin A (enterotoxin). Infect Immun. 1988 May;56(5):1215–1221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsuoka I, Syoto B, Kurihara K, Kubo S, Syuto B. ADP-ribosylation of specific membrane proteins in pheochromocytoma and primary-cultured brain cells by botulinum neurotoxins type C and D. FEBS Lett. 1987 Jun 1;216(2):295–299. [PubMed]
  • McClane BA, Hanna PC, Wnek AP. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Microb Pathog. 1988 May;4(5):317–323. [PubMed]
  • McClane BA, Wnek AP, Hulkower KI, Hanna PC. Divalent cation involvement in the action of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin. Early events in enterotoxin action are divalent cation-independent. J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 15;263(5):2423–2435. [PubMed]
  • McClung LS. Human Food Poisoning Due to Growth of Clostridium perfringens (C. welchii) in Freshly Cooked Chicken: Preliminary Note. J Bacteriol. 1945 Aug;50(2):229–231. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McClung LS, Toabe R. The Egg Yolk Plate Reaction for the Presumptive Diagnosis of Clostridium sporogenes and Certain Species of the Gangrene and Botulinum Groups. J Bacteriol. 1947 Feb;53(2):139–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCroskey LM, Hatheway CL. Laboratory findings in four cases of adult botulism suggest colonization of the intestinal tract. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 May;26(5):1052–1054. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCroskey LM, Hatheway CL, Fenicia L, Pasolini B, Aureli P. Characterization of an organism that produces type E botulinal toxin but which resembles Clostridium butyricum from the feces of an infant with type E botulism. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Jan;23(1):201–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McDonel JL. Clostridium perfringens toxins (type A, B, C, D, E). Pharmacol Ther. 1980;10(3):617–655. [PubMed]
  • McGregor JA, Soper DE, Lovell G, Todd JK. Maternal deaths associated with Clostridium sordellii infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Oct;161(4):987–995. [PubMed]
  • Mellanby J, Green J. How does tetanus toxin act? Neuroscience. 1981;6(3):281–300. [PubMed]
  • Midura TF, Arnon SS. Infant botulism. Identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxins in faeces. Lancet. 1976 Oct 30;2(7992):934–936. [PubMed]
  • Mitsui N, Mitsui K, Hase J. Purification and some properties of tetanolysin. Microbiol Immunol. 1980;24(7):575–584. [PubMed]
  • MOLLER V, SCHEIBEL I. Preliminary report on the isolation of an apparently new type of CI. botulinum. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1960;48:80–80. [PubMed]
  • Mookhtiar KA, Steinbrink DR, Van Wart HE. Mode of hydrolysis of collagen-like peptides by class I and class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenases: evidence for both endopeptidase and tripeptidylcarboxypeptidase activities. Biochemistry. 1985 Nov 5;24(23):6527–6533. [PubMed]
  • MOUSSA RS. Complexity of toxins from Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei. J Bacteriol. 1958 Nov;76(5):538–545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MOUSSA RS. Antigenic formulae for Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1959 Apr;77(2):341–350. [PubMed]
  • Muldrow LL, Ibeanu GC, Lee NI, Bose NK, Johnson J. Molecular cloning of Clostridium difficile toxin A gene fragment in lambda gt11. FEBS Lett. 1987 Mar 23;213(2):249–253. [PubMed]
  • Murrell TG, Egerton JR, Rampling A, Samels J, Walker PD. The ecology and epidemiology of the pig-bel syndrome in man in New Guinea. J Hyg (Lond) 1966 Sep;64(3):375–396. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakamura S, Kimura I, Yamakawa K, Nishida S. Taxonomic relationships among Clostridium novyi Types A and B, Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium botulinum type C. J Gen Microbiol. 1983 May;129(5):1473–1479. [PubMed]
  • Nakamura S, Okado I, Nakashio S, Nishida S. Clostridium sporogenes isolates and their relationship to C. botulinum based on deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation. J Gen Microbiol. 1977 Jun;100(2):395–401. [PubMed]
  • Nakamura S, Tanabe N, Yamakawa K, Nishida S. Cytotoxin production by Clostridium sordellii strains. Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(6):495–502. [PubMed]
  • Naylor RD, Martin PK, Sharpe RT. Detection of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by ELISA. Res Vet Sci. 1987 Mar;42(2):255–256. [PubMed]
  • Nees S, Veh RW, Schauer R. Purification and characterization of neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1975 Jun;356(6):1027–1042. [PubMed]
  • Niilo L. Clostridium perfringens in animal disease: a review of current knowledge. Can Vet J. 1980 May;21(5):141–148. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nishida S, Imaizumi M. Toxigenicity of Clostridium histolyticum. J Bacteriol. 1966 Feb;91(2):477–483. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Notermans S, Hagenaars AM, Kozaki S. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and determination of Clostridium botulinum toxins A, B, and E. Methods Enzymol. 1982;84:223–238. [PubMed]
  • Nukina M, Mochida Y, Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi G. Purification of Clostridium botulinum type G progenitor toxin. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1988 Apr;268(2):220–227. [PubMed]
  • OAKLEY CL. Bacterial toxins and classification. J Gen Microbiol. 1955 Apr;12(2):344–347. [PubMed]
  • OAKLEY CL, WARRACK GH. The alpha, beta and gamma antigens of Clostridium histolyticum (Weinberg & Séguin, 1916). J Gen Microbiol. 1950 Sep;4(3):365–373. [PubMed]
  • OAKLEY CL, WARRACK GH. The ACRA test as a means of estimating hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease and their antibodies. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1951 Jan;63(1):45–55. [PubMed]
  • OAKLEY CL, WARRACK GH. Routine typing of Clostridium welchii. J Hyg (Lond) 1953 Mar;51(1):102–107. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • OAKLEY CL, WARRACK GH. The soluble antigens of Clostridium oedematiens type D (CI. haemolyticum). J Pathol Bacteriol. 1959 Oct;78:543–551. [PubMed]
  • Ohashi Y, Kamiya T, Fujiwara M, Narumiya S. ADP-ribosylation by type C1 and D botulinum neurotoxins: stimulation by guanine nucleotides and inhibition by guanidino-containing compounds. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Feb 13;142(3):1032–1038. [PubMed]
  • Ohashi Y, Narumiya S. ADP-ribosylation of a Mr 21,000 membrane protein by type D botulinum toxin. J Biol Chem. 1987 Feb 5;262(4):1430–1433. [PubMed]
  • Ohishi I. Response of mouse intestinal loop to botulinum C2 toxin: enterotoxic activity induced by cooperation of nonlinked protein components. Infect Immun. 1983 May;40(2):691–695. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohishi I, Iwasaki M, Sakaguchi G. Purification and characterization of two components of botulinum C2 toxin. Infect Immun. 1980 Dec;30(3):668–673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohishi I, Iwasaki M, Sakaguchi G. Vascular permeability activity of botulinum C2 toxin elicited by cooperation of two dissimilar protein components. Infect Immun. 1981 Mar;31(3):890–895. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohishi I, Sugii S, Sakaguchi G. Oral toxicities of Clostridium botulinum toxins in response to molecular size. Infect Immun. 1977 Apr;16(1):107–109. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ohishi I, Tsuyama S. ADP-ribosylation of nonmuscle actin with component I of C2 toxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Apr 29;136(2):802–806. [PubMed]
  • Okabe A, Shimizu T, Hayashi H. Cloning and sequencing of a phospholipase C gene of Clostridium perfringens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Apr 14;160(1):33–39. [PubMed]
  • Ottlinger ME, Lin S. Clostridium difficile toxin B induces reorganization of actin, vinculin, and talin in cultured cells. Exp Cell Res. 1988 Jan;174(1):215–229. [PubMed]
  • Patton NM, Holmes HT, Riggs RJ, Cheeke PR. Enterotoxemia in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci. 1978 Oct;28(5):536–540. [PubMed]
  • Pelfrey TM, Turk RP, Peoples JB, Elliott DW. Surgical aspects of Clostridium septicum septicemia. Arch Surg. 1984 May;119(5):546–550. [PubMed]
  • Phillips AW, Batty I, Wood RD. A partial characterization of the alpha-toxin of Clostridium oedematiens type B. Eur J Biochem. 1970 Jun;14(2):367–371. [PubMed]
  • Pickett J, Berg B, Chaplin E, Brunstetter-Shafer MA. Syndrome of botulism in infancy: clinical and electrophysiologic study. N Engl J Med. 1976 Sep 30;295(14):770–772. [PubMed]
  • Popoff MR. Purification and characterization of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and cross-reactivity with Clostridium difficile cytotoxin. Infect Immun. 1987 Jan;55(1):35–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Popoff MR, Boquet P. Clostridium spiroforme toxin is a binary toxin which ADP-ribosylates cellular actin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 May 16;152(3):1361–1368. [PubMed]
  • Popoff MR, Dodin A. Survey of neuraminidase production by Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Clostridium difficile strains from clinical and nonclinical sources. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Nov;22(5):873–876. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Popoff MR, Rubin EJ, Gill DM, Boquet P. Actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase produced by a Clostridium difficile strain. Infect Immun. 1988 Sep;56(9):2299–2306. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pothoulakis C, Barone LM, Ely R, Faris B, Clark ME, Franzblau C, LaMont JT. Purification and properties of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin B. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 25;261(3):1316–1321. [PubMed]
  • Prescott LM, Altenbern RA. Inducible lysis clostridium tetani. J Bacteriol. 1967 Apr;93(4):1220–1226. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prescott LM, Altenbern RA. Detection of bacteriophages from two strains of Clostridium tetani. J Virol. 1967 Oct;1(5):1085–1086. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Princewill TJ, Oakley CL. Deoxyribonucleases and hyaluronidases of Clostridium septicum and Clostridium chauvoei. III. Relationship between the two organisms. Med Lab Sci. 1976 Apr;33(2):10–118. [PubMed]
  • Richardson M, Granum PE. Sequence of the amino-terminal part of enterotoxin from Clostridium perfringens type A: identification of points of trypsin activation. Infect Immun. 1983 Jun;40(3):943–949. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richardson M, Granum PE. The amino acid sequence of the enterotoxin from Clostridium perfringens type A. FEBS Lett. 1985 Mar 25;182(2):479–484. [PubMed]
  • Rifkin GD, Fekety FR, Silva J., Jr Antibiotic-induced colitis implication of a toxin neutralised by Clostridium sordellii antitoxin. Lancet. 1977 Nov 26;2(8048):1103–1106. [PubMed]
  • Rösener S, Chhatwal GS, Aktories K. Botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 but not botulinum neurotoxins C1 and D ADP-ribosylates low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins. FEBS Lett. 1987 Nov 16;224(1):38–42. [PubMed]
  • Roggentin P, Rothe B, Lottspeich F, Schauer R. Cloning and sequencing of a Clostridium perfringens sialidase gene. FEBS Lett. 1988 Sep 26;238(1):31–34. [PubMed]
  • Rood JI, Wilkinson RG. Relationship between hemagglutinin and sialidase from Clostridium perfringens CN3870: chromatographic characterization of the biologically active proteins. J Bacteriol. 1976 May;126(2):831–844. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • ROSS HE, WARREN ME, BARNES JM. Clostridium welchii iota toxin; its activation by trypsin. J Gen Microbiol. 1949 Jan;3(1):148–152. [PubMed]
  • Rothman SW, Brown JE, Diecidue A, Foret DA. Differential cytotoxic effects of toxins A and B isolated from Clostridium difficile. Infect Immun. 1984 Nov;46(2):324–331. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rothman SW, Gentry MK, Brown JE, Foret DA, Stone MJ, Strickler MP. Immunochemical and structural similarities in toxin A and toxin B of Clostridium difficile shown by binding to monoclonal antibodies. Toxicon. 1988;26(6):583–597. [PubMed]
  • Rubin EJ, Gill DM, Boquet P, Popoff MR. Functional modification of a 21-kilodalton G protein when ADP-ribosylated by exoenzyme C3 of Clostridium botulinum. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jan;8(1):418–426. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rutter JM, Collee JG. Studies on the soluble antigens of Clostridium oedematiens (Cl. novyi). J Med Microbiol. 1969 Nov 4;2(4):395–417. [PubMed]
  • Sakaguchi G. Clostridium botulinum toxins. Pharmacol Ther. 1982;19(2):165–194. [PubMed]
  • Sakaguchi G, Uemura T, Riemann HP. Simplified method for purification of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin. Appl Microbiol. 1973 Nov;26(5):762–767. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sakurai J, Fujii Y. Purification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens beta toxin. Toxicon. 1987;25(12):1301–1310. [PubMed]
  • Sakurai J, Fujii Y, Dezaki K, Endo K. Effect of Clostridium perfringens beta toxin on blood pressure of rats. Microbiol Immunol. 1984;28(1):23–31. [PubMed]
  • Sakurai J, Fujii Y, Matsuura M, Endo K. Pharmacological effect of beta toxin of Clostridium perfringens type C on rats. Microbiol Immunol. 1981;25(5):423–432. [PubMed]
  • Sathyamoorthy V, DasGupta BR. Partial amino acid sequences of the heavy and light chains of botulinum neurotoxin type E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Mar 29;127(3):768–772. [PubMed]
  • Sathyamoorthy V, DasGupta BR. Separation, purification, partial characterization and comparison of the heavy and light chains of botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E. J Biol Chem. 1985 Sep 5;260(19):10461–10466. [PubMed]
  • Schering B, Bärmann M, Chhatwal GS, Geipel U, Aktories K. ADP-ribosylation of skeletal muscle and non-muscle actin by Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Jan 15;171(1-2):225–229. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt JJ, Sathyamoorthy V, DasGupta BR. Partial amino acid sequence of the heavy and light chains of botulinum neurotoxin type A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 Mar 30;119(3):900–904. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt JJ, Sathyamoorthy V, DasGupta BR. Partial amino acid sequences of botulinum neurotoxins types B and E. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985 May 1;238(2):544–548. [PubMed]
  • Shone CC, Hambleton P, Melling J. Inactivation of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin by trypsin and purification of two tryptic fragments. Proteolytic action near the COOH-terminus of the heavy subunit destroys toxin-binding activity. Eur J Biochem. 1985 Aug 15;151(1):75–82. [PubMed]
  • Siegel LS, Johnson-Winegar AD, Sellin LC. Effect of 3,4-diaminopyridine on the survival of mice injected with botulinum neurotoxin type A, B, E, or F. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Jun 30;84(2):255–263. [PubMed]
  • Simpson LL. The origin, structure, and pharmacological activity of botulinum toxin. Pharmacol Rev. 1981 Sep;33(3):155–188. [PubMed]
  • Simpson LL. A comparison of the pharmacological properties of Clostridium botulinum type C1 and C2 toxins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982 Dec;223(3):695–701. [PubMed]
  • Simpson LL. Molecular basis for the pharmacological actions of Clostridium botulinum type C2 toxin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Sep;230(3):665–669. [PubMed]
  • Simpson LL. Molecular pharmacology of botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1986;26:427–453. [PubMed]
  • Simpson LL, Stiles BG, Zepeda HH, Wilkins TD. Molecular basis for the pathological actions of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Infect Immun. 1987 Jan;55(1):118–122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Smith LD. The occurrence of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani in the soil of the United States. Health Lab Sci. 1978 Apr;15(2):74–80. [PubMed]
  • Smith LD. Virulence factors of Clostridium perfringens. Rev Infect Dis. 1979 Mar-Apr;1(2):254–262. [PubMed]
  • Sonnabend OA, Sonnabend WF, Krech U, Molz G, Sigrist T. Continuous microbiological and pathological study of 70 sudden and unexpected infant deaths: toxigenic intestinal clostridium botulinum infection in 9 cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet. 1985 Feb 2;1(8423):237–241. [PubMed]
  • Sonnabend WF, Sonnabend UP, Krech T. Isolation of Clostridium botulinum type G from Swiss soil specimens by using sequential steps in an identification scheme. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Aug;53(8):1880–1884. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stark PL, Lee A. Clostridia isolated from the feces of infants during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 1982 Mar;100(3):362–365. [PubMed]
  • Stark RL, Duncan CL. Purification and biochemical properties of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin. Infect Immun. 1972 Nov;6(5):662–673. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • STERNE M, WARRACK GH. The interactions between Clostridium septicum and Clostridium histolyticum toxins and antitoxins. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1962 Oct;84:277–288. [PubMed]
  • STERNE M, WARRACK GH. THE TYPES OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1964 Jul;88:279–283. [PubMed]
  • Stevens DL, Troyer BE, Merrick DT, Mitten JE, Olson RD. Lethal effects and cardiovascular effects of purified alpha- and theta-toxins from Clostridium perfringens. J Infect Dis. 1988 Feb;157(2):272–279. [PubMed]
  • Stiles BG, Wilkins TD. Purification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin: dependence on two nonlinked proteins for biological activity. Infect Immun. 1986 Dec;54(3):683–688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stiles BG, Wilkins TD. Clostridium perfringens iota toxin: synergism between two proteins. Toxicon. 1986;24(8):767–773. [PubMed]
  • Strom MS, Eklund MW, Poysky FT. Plasmids in Clostridium botulinum and related Clostridium species. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Nov;48(5):956–963. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suen JC, Hatheway CL, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ. Genetic confirmation of identities of neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum implicated as agents of infant botulism. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Oct;26(10):2191–2192. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sugahara T, Takahashi T, Yamaya S, Ohsaka A. Vascular permeability increase by alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) of Clostridium perfringens. Toxicon. 1977;15(1):81–87. [PubMed]
  • Sugiyama H. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. Microbiol Rev. 1980 Sep;44(3):419–448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sullivan NM, Pellett S, Wilkins TD. Purification and characterization of toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. Infect Immun. 1982 Mar;35(3):1032–1040. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sutton RG, Hobbs BC. Food poisoning caused by heat-sensitive Clostridium welchii. A report of five recent outbreaks. J Hyg (Lond) 1968 Mar;66(1):135–146. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Swiatek PJ, Allen SD, Siders JA, Lee CH. DNase production by Clostridium septicum. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Feb;25(2):437–438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taguchi R, Ikezawa H. Phospholipase C from Clostridium novyi type A. I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Oct 21;409(1):75–85. [PubMed]
  • Takahashi S, Seifter S, Binder M. Elastolytic activities of Clostridium histolyticum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1970;39(6):1058–1064. [PubMed]
  • Taylor NS, Thorne GM, Bartlett JG. Comparison of two toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. Infect Immun. 1981 Dec;34(3):1036–1043. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tenbroeck C, Bauer JH. THE TETANUS BACILLUS AS AN INTESTINAL SAPROPHYTE IN MAN. J Exp Med. 1922 Aug 31;36(3):261–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Titball RW, Hunter SE, Martin KL, Morris BC, Shuttleworth AD, Rubidge T, Anderson DW, Kelly DC. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the alpha-toxin (phospholipase C) of Clostridium perfringens. Infect Immun. 1989 Feb;57(2):367–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tixier G, Alouf JE. Essai de purification et propriétés de la toxine delta de Clostridium perfringens type C. Ann Microbiol (Paris) 1976 Nov-Dec;127B(4):509–524. [PubMed]
  • Triadafilopoulos G, Pothoulakis C, O'Brien MJ, LaMont JT. Differential effects of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B on rabbit ileum. Gastroenterology. 1987 Aug;93(2):273–279. [PubMed]
  • Tsai SC, Adamik R, Moss J, Aktories K. Separation of the 24 kDa substrate for botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase and the cholera toxin ADP-ribosylation factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 May 16;152(3):957–961. [PubMed]
  • Tso JY, Siebel C. Cloning and expression of the phospholipase C gene from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans. Infect Immun. 1989 Feb;57(2):468–476. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsui JK, Fross RD, Calne S, Calne DB. Local treatment of spasmodic torticollis with botulinum toxin. Can J Neurol Sci. 1987 Aug;14(3 Suppl):533–535. [PubMed]
  • Tweten RK. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the perfringolysin O (theta-toxin) gene from Clostridium perfringens and characterization of the gene product. Infect Immun. 1988 Dec;56(12):3228–3234. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tweten RK. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for perfringolysin O (theta-toxin) from Clostridium perfringens: significant homology with the genes for streptolysin O and pneumolysin. Infect Immun. 1988 Dec;56(12):3235–3240. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vandekerckhove J, Schering B, Bärmann M, Aktories K. Clostridium perfringens iota toxin ADP-ribosylates skeletal muscle actin in Arg-177. FEBS Lett. 1987 Dec 10;225(1-2):48–52. [PubMed]
  • van Heyningen S. Binding of ganglioside by the chains of tetanus toxin. FEBS Lett. 1976 Sep 15;68(1):5–7. [PubMed]
  • Van Wart HE, Steinbrink DR. Complementary substrate specificities of class I and class II collagenases from Clostridium histolyticum. Biochemistry. 1985 Nov 5;24(23):6520–6526. [PubMed]
  • Vargaftig BB, Lefort J, Giroux EL. Haemorrhagic and inflammatory properties of collagenase from C. histolyticum. Agents Actions. 1976 Sep;6(5):627–635. [PubMed]
  • Weickert MJ, Chambliss GH, Sugiyama H. Production of toxin by Clostridium botulinum type A strains cured by plasmids. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1986 Jan;51(1):52–56. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Williams-Walls NJ. Clostridium botulinum Type F: Isolation from Crabs. Science. 1968 Oct 18;162(3851):375–376. [PubMed]
  • Wnek AP, McClane BA. Identification of a 50,000 Mr protein from rabbit brush border membranes that binds Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 May 16;112(3):1099–1105. [PubMed]
  • Wren BW, Clayton CL, Mullany PP, Tabaqchali S. Molecular cloning and expression of Clostridium difficile toxin A in Escherichia coli K12. FEBS Lett. 1987 Dec 10;225(1-2):82–86. [PubMed]
  • Wu JI, Riemann H, Lee WH. Thermal stability of the deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids between the proteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Can J Microbiol. 1972 Jan;18(1):97–99. [PubMed]
  • Yamakawa K, Nakamura S, Nishida S. Separation of two cytotoxins of Clostridium sordellii strains. Microbiol Immunol. 1985;29(6):553–557. [PubMed]
  • Yamakawa K, Tanabe N, Okada Y, Nishida S, Nakamura S. Rabbit ileal loop responses to Clostridium sordellii strains. Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(9):807–809. [PubMed]
  • Yamakawa Y, Ito A, Sato H. Theta-toxin of Clostridium perfringens. I. Purification and some properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Oct 26;494(2):301–313. [PubMed]
  • Yoshida E, Noda H. Isolation and characterization of collagenases I and II from Clostridium histolyticum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1965 Sep 20;105(3):562–574. [PubMed]
  • ZEISSLER J, RASSFELD-STERNBERG L. Enteritis necroticans due to Clostridium welchii type F. Br Med J. 1949 Feb 12;1(4597):267–269. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Clinical Microbiology Reviews are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)