The demographic (gender, age, height, weight, BMI, WC, HC, WHR, depression and anxiety) and socioeconomic status (economic status, educational status, occupational status, marital status and food habits) of two groups at the time of admission (baseline) have been shown in . In both groups, the number of male participants was higher than females. The age of participants of Aerobic and Yoga groups ranged from 20 to45 years with mean (± SD) 32.87 ± 7.23 years and 34.24 ± 7.82 years respectively. The height, weight, HC and depression were slightly higher of Aerobic group than Yoga group while age, BMI, WC, WHR and anxiety were slightly higher of Yoga group than Aerobic group. In both groups, the participants were mostly of high economic status, graduates, sedentary workers, married and vegetarian. The demographic as well as socioeconomic status of two groups at admission were found similar i.e., not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In other words, the participants of two groups were demographically and socio-economically matched and therefore, the outcome measures of two treatments (Aerobic and Yoga) were comparable.
Demographic characteristics summary (mean±SD) of two groups at admission (baseline)
The pre and post practice levels of different parameters (outcome measures) of two groups were summarized in . showed that after practice, the levels of all parameters decreased (improved) in both the groups and the decrease (improvement) was higher in Yoga group than Aerobic group. On comparing the levels within the groups (i.e., between periods), all parameters in Yoga group showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease from day 30 while Aerobic group showed improvement from day 90. Similarly, comparing the levels between the groups, the weight, WC, HC and depression decreased more significantly (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) at day 90 and day 180 in Yoga group than Aerobic group. The depression also decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in Yoga group than in Aerobic group at day 30. Further, at the end of these practices, the weight, BMI, WC, HC, WHR, depression and anxiety in Aerobic group improved (day 0 – day 180) by 8.3%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 2.4%, 1.9%, 19.6% and 10.2% respectively while it was 16.3%, 16.4%, 12.9%, 7.7%, 5.5%, 44.8% and 19.4%, respectively in Yoga group. In other words, weight, BMI, WC, HC, WHR, depression and anxiety improved 2.0, 1.9, 3.0, 3.3, 2.9, 2.3 and 1.9 fold more in Yoga group, than in Aerobic group.
Pre and post outcome measure parameters summary (mean±SD) of two groups
To see the relative improvements among variables, the change (pre-post) in each variable was correlated with each other and summarized in . shows that the improvements among variables were significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) associated with each. The change (improvement) in weight positively (direct association) and significantly correlated with change in BMI (r = 0.98, P < 0.001), WC (r = 0.22, P < 0.001), HC (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), depression (r = 0.13, P < 0.05) and anxiety (r = 0.14, P < 0.05). Similarly, change in BMI positively and significantly correlated with change in WC (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), HC (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), depression (r = 0.12, P < 0.05) and anxiety (r = 0.16, P < 0.01). Further, improvement in WC positively and significantly correlated with improvement in HC (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), WHR (r = 0.75, P < 0.001), depression (r = 0.54, P < 0.001) and anxiety (r = 0.23, P < 0.001). The change in HC showed negative (inverse association) and significant correlation with change in WHR (r = −0.17, P < 0.01) while significant and positive correlation with change in depression (r = 0.54, P < 0.001) and anxiety (r = 0.26, P < 0.001). The Change in WHR showed positive and significant correlation with change in depression (r = 0.20, P < 0.01). The change in depression correlated significantly with change in anxiety (r = 0.23, P < P < 0.001). However, the improvements in depression and anxiety mostly correlated with the improvements in WC and HC.
Correlation (n=272) among variables