As to the main focus of this survey, the frequency of the use of NHST without CI, ES or Model and Power estimation among all journals, is quite clear. In the HIF journals this practice (that does not include any of those four techniques) is used in 89% of articles published in Nature, in 42% of articles published in Science whereas it is used only in 14% and 7% of articles published in NEJM and The Lancet respectively. In the LIF journals, this restrictive NHST use ranges from a minimum of 7% of articles in the JEP-A, to a maximum of 32% in Neuropsychology.
The estimation of prospective statistical power in HIF journals ranges from 0% in Science to 66% in The Lancet, whereas in LIF journals, it ranges from 1% of articles published in the AJPH to 23% of articles published in the JEP-A.
The use of CIs in HIF journals ranges from 9% in the articles published in Nature journals, to 93% in the articles published in The Lancet. In LIF journals, this use ranges from 9% of articles published in Neuropsychology, to 78% of articles published in the AJPH. Furthermore the reporting of ES in the HIF journals ranges from a minimum of 3% in Nature journals to a maximum of 87% in Lancet. In the three journals with LIF, this practice is presented in 61% of articles published in Neuropsychology and the AJPH and in 90% of articles published in JEP-A.
The use of model(s) estimation is most prevalent in the articles published in Science, 6 out 24, 25%, although that sample is very small. In all other HIF and LIF journals, this use ranges from 1% to a maximum of 7%.
To summarize, among the HIF journals, the best reporting practices, the use of CI and ES, were present in more than 80% of articles published in NEJM and Lancet whereas this percentage drops to less than 30% in the articles published in Science and in less than 11% in the articles published in the Nature journals. For Science, it is important to note that 25% of the small number of studied used model(s) estimation procedures.
In the LIF journals, ES was used in at least 60% of articles, whereas the use of CI varied considerably, being used in less than 10% of articles published in Neuropsychology and JEP-A, but in 78% of articles published in the AJPH. From the above results, it seems then clear that there is a very large variation among HIF and among LIF journals in the use of alternatives to NHST, with no clear overall difference between the two sets of journals in our study. This variation may reflect the editorial guidelines and varying customs of the different journals. The impact of specific editorial recommendations on the changes in statistical practices, has been documented by 
With respect to previous similar studies, we find that for Nature Medicine the use of CIs and prospective power is higher than that reported by 
, referring to 2004 articles. The use of CIs and prospective power was 0% in 2004, whereas we observed a 2/9, 22% and a 1/9, 11% respectively, in 2011, although numbers of articles were small. The same study examined these practices in NEJM. The use of CIs and prospective power was 67% for CIs and 58% for prospective power in 2004, whereas we observed a rise to an 84% and a 61%, respectively, in 2011.
Fidler et al.
surveyed the use of CIs in the AJPH in the articles published in 1990 and 2000. They observed that this practice rose from 10% to 54%. Our study found that it increased further to 78% in 2011.
Fritz, Sherndl and Kühberger 
surveyed the use of CI, ES and power analysis in a large number of psychological journals in the period 1990–2010. Overall they found that approximately 10% used CIs, 38% ESs and only 3% power analysis. Approximately the same percentage of CI reporting was observed by 
in their survey of statistical practices in samples of articles of different psychological journals in the period 1998–2006. In the two psychological journals that had adopted editorial statistical guidelines and were examined in our study, namely Neuropsychology and JEP-A, these percentages range from 9% to 23% for CIs, 61% to 90% for ESs and from 8% to 23% for prospective power.
However, reporting CIs and ESs does not guarantee that researchers use them in their interpretation of results. Note that we used a very liberal approach in the statistical practices classification for ‘interpretation’—any comment about the CI or ES was considered an interpretation. Many authors reported CIs and/or ESs, but this does not guarantee that they use the CI or ES for interpretation, or even refer to them in the text (see Figures S1 and S2). In many cases they used NHST and based interpretation on NHST, with no interpretive reference to the ESs or CIs that they reported. The lack of interpretation of CIs and ESs means that just observing high percentages of CI and ES reporting may overestimate the impact of statistical reform (14). In other words, it is not sufficient merely to report ESs and CIs—they need to be used as the basis of discussion and interpretation.
We emphasize the importance of caution in generalizing our evidence to other disciplines or journals, even noting that the problem of reforming statistical practices has been raised in other disciplines such as biology 
, environmental science 
and ecology 
Our results suggest that statistical practices vary extremely widely from journal to journal, whether IF is high or relatively lower. This variation suggests that journal editorial policy and perhaps disciplinary custom, for example medicine vs. psychology, may be highly influential on the statistical practices published, which in turn suggests the optimistic conclusion that editorial policy and author guidelines may be effective in achieving improvement in researchers' statistical practices.
To summarize our findings, even if we do not endorse the Ioannidis 
claim that “most published research findings are false”, we are convinced that without an elimination of the “Null Ritual” and a rapid adoption of a statistical reform, “most published research findings have a high probability of being false”.