PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
Neonatology. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 June 1.
Published in final edited form as:
Published online 2012 June 1. doi:  10.1159/000337356
PMCID: PMC3568753
NIHMSID: NIHMS394339

Current technology in the diagnosis of developmentally related lung disorders

Abstract

Respiratory disorders that present in the newborn period may result from structural, functional, or acquired mechanisms that limit gas exchange between the airspace and vascular bed. Exciting new imaging, gene sequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular and cell-based techniques are enhancing our understanding of mechanisms of disease, are highlighting the complexity of interactions between genes, development, and environment in the manifestation of health and disease, but are also now becoming part of the clinical armamentarium for the care of patients. Some of these technologies and their clinical potential are briefly reviewed in this paper.

Keywords: lung development, gene sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cells, mass spectrometry, childhood lung disease

Respiratory disorders that present in the newborn period may result from structural, functional, or acquired mechanisms that limit gas exchange between the airspace and vascular bed. On one hand, an under-developed airway or pulmonary vascular bed limits the surface area available for gas exchange. On the other hand, structural development of the lung may be perfectly normal, however, the lung is functionally (biochemically) unprepared to exchange gas. Finally, the lung may be structurally and functionally mature, but an acquired superimposed condition, such as an infection or meconium aspiration, leads to respiratory dysfunction.

Disorders of lung development

Disorders of structural lung development

Structural disorders of the lung result from a disruption in the normal sequence of development of the pulmonary vascular system, the conducting airways, the terminal gas exchanging units or any combination thereof. An exquisitely coordinated interaction of genes and proteins dictates this sequence of development through successive dichotomous branching from the embryonic foregut endoderm. [1] Although the exact cascade of events that result in lung formation has not been completely delineated, it is clear that mutations in some of these genes result in incomplete development. For example, the thyroid transcription factor, encoded by the gene NKX2-1, is a critical regulator of lung development and its expression marks the first recognizable step in lung differentiation.[2] Absence of the thyroid transcription factor results in absence of lung development in mice, while heterozygous mutations in this gene result in severe RDS in newborns and interstitial lung disease in older children [35]. Several other transcription factors, including members of the forkhead box (FOX) family, Sry-related high mobility group box (SOX) family, and Sam pointed domain Ets-like factor (SPDEF), among others, are necessary for lung development and respiratory epithelial cell differentiation, as demonstrated in murine lineages, however, as yet only a few of these factors have been linked to neonatal respiratory disease or lung malformations in humans. Mutations in the genes encoding the transcription factors FOXF1 and FOXC2 have been implicated in the genesis of alveolar capillary dysplasia, a developmental disorder of lung vascular development. [6, 7] Deletions of a cluster of genes around the FOXF1 locus have also been associated with abnormalities in tracheoesophageal development. [8] Aberrant lung growth and development associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia continues to be an enigma. Although commonly attributed to a mass effect from herniated abdominal contents, some animal models as well as clinical experience suggest a more global disruption of lung airspace and vascular development contributes to the cases in which there appears to be discordance between the clinically assessed lung volume and actual gas exchanging capacity. In murine lineages, the transcription factors FOG-2 and GATA-4 result in diaphragmatic defects and pulmonary hypoplasia, but mutations in the genes encoding these factors in humans have been identified only infrequently in children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. [912]

Aside from genetic factors, mechanical factors also play an important role in structural lung development. Pulmonary hypoplasia is seen in neuromuscular disorders associated with absence of fetal breathing, suggesting that transduction of mechanical stretch into biochemical signals is a critical stimulus for lung development. [1314] Conditions with low or absent amniotic fluid, such as prolonged rupture of fetal membranes or disorders of renal development, are also associated with disrupted lung development. [15] However, recent observations suggest that in some cases, the mechanisms of pulmonary maldevelopment may be linked to the renal maldevelopment through a common underlying mechanism. For example, the genes responsible for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD1, encoding polycystin) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKHD1, encoding fibrocystin) are also expressed in primary cilia and bronchiectasis has been identified in individuals with mutations in PKD1. [16, 17] Further, in murine lineages, Cux1 is expressed in lung and the developing genitourinary tract and may provide a link between cystic kidney disease and lung development. [18]

Disorders of functional lung development

Functional disorders of the lung result from incomplete expression of the biochemical factors necessary for pulmonary cellular homeostasis and gas exchange. The most common and well-known is respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is typically due to a developmentally regulated quantitative deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. The pulmonary surfactant is a unique phospholipid-protein complex that is synthesized, packaged, and secreted by alveolar type II cells with a primary function of lowering surface tension and preventing atelectasis at end-expiration. A regulated cycle of synthesis, intracellular trafficking, secretion, and recycling involves both the phospholipid and protein components of pulmonary surfactant. [19, 20] The development of surfactant replacement therapy has been the single most important therapeutic advance in the care of infants with RDS and has decreased the severity of the disease as well as mortality. [21] However, not all infants respond to surfactant replacement therapy, which has led to the identification of mutations in genes encoding surfactant associated molecules, including surfactant proteins B and C (SFTPB and SFTPC), the ATP binding cassette member A3 (ABCA3), and the thyroid transcription factor (NKX2-1), that result in severe neonatal RDS as well as chronic interstitial lung disease in children (Table 1). [2226] The syndrome of retained amniotic fluid, more commonly known as transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), results from a complex developmental interaction between pulmonary neuroendocrine signals and epithelial ion and water transporters, including the amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) and aquaporins, in the pulmonary epithelium and lack of fluid reabsorption near birth. [2729] Another occasionally overlooked mechanism of RDS in newborns is primary ciliary dyskinesia in which ciliary dysfunction due to mutations in genes encoding inner and outer dynein arms and other ciliary elements (DNAH5, DNAI1, and DNAH11, to name a few) result in varying forms of thoracic and abdominal isomerism, recurrent pulmonary infections, and RDS. [3032] The developmental and molecular processes that determine antioxidant capacity, inflammation, and immune regulation are less well characterized and their role in the ability to respond to environmental stress and pulmonary dysfunction remain an active area of investigation. [3336]

Table
Surfactant dysfunction disorders that present as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

Environmental influences on lung development

Aside from acquired bacterial, viral, or mycoplasma infection and meconium aspiration as common and well-known “environmental” factors that can disrupt lung development, emerging data suggest that exposure to nicotine metabolites, or “third-hand” smoke, may affect alveolar epithelial differentiation and cellular signaling resulting in disruption of pulmonary functional and structural homeostasis. [37]

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) represents a combination of disrupted structural and functional lung development resulting from a combination of genetic, environmental and developmental factors. Although the many mechanisms that result in BPD remain elusive, intrauterine and postnatal inflammation, preterm birth and need for gas exchange across a structurally and biochemically immature lung combine to further disrupt lung development, prolong the need for respiratory support, and result in long-term morbidity. [38]

Technology for diagnosis of lung disorders

The procedures, approach, and technology to diagnose these developmental lung disorders in the newborn period, although more refined and responsive to clinical needs, have not changed dramatically for quite some time. A combination of insights gained from standard diagnostic tests along with knowledge of the natural history of the disease often permits retrospective application of a diagnosis, but this approach does not permit mechanism-specific treatment. However, exciting new tools that have been limited to research are now finding their way into clinical use and will provide the next step in understanding the mechanisms of these disorders, will permit more sophisticated diagnosis, and will ultimately lead to personalized, mechanism-based treatment strategies.

Imaging

Chest radiography, despite now using digital technology that permits decreasing radiation exposure and immediate visualization, has not enhanced our ability to specifically diagnose or understand newborn lung disease. High resolution computed tomography of the chest (CT) has provided greater definition and spatial localization of lung pathology, but only now are quantitative means and more refined descriptions being developed to more accurately provide insights into pulmonary pathology. [39, 40]

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with spectroscopy is starting to provide insights into brain metabolism and has the potential to be applied to the lung. Hyperpolarized helium MRI has the capability to clearly assess alveolar structural development and gas exchange surface area in a longitudinal fashion. [41, 42]

Echocardiography has provided some ability to understand the contribution of the pulmonary vasculature to disorders of gas exchange, but the ability to accurately measure pulmonary arterial pressure in newborns is unreliable, at best. [43] Novel methods that take advantage of the physical properties of ultrasound have the potential to provide more sensitive measures of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, including backscatter analysis to characterize the collagen content in myocardium as a marker of tissue remodeling and speckle-tracking to measure regional myocardial strain. [4448] While validated for measurements of left ventricular structure and function in adults, studies are underway to determine the reliability of these approaches for the neonatal right ventricle.

Molecular microbiology

For those infants whose respiratory dysfunction may have an infectious basis, molecular microbiological techniques now permit rapid identification of bacterial and viral genomes and provide the ability to limit antibiotic use, but still are limited by access to the best compartment to sample without invasive procedures. The Human Microbiome Project is identifying interactions between a host’s genetic background and commensal organisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, airway, skin, and genitourinary tract that influence expression of disease. [49] Enteric commensal microorganisms promote development of innate and adaptive immunity through a balance of tolerance to luminal antigens and recognition of pathogens. [50] Dendritic cells in the GI tract epithelium monitor the intestinal environment for pathogens and, following recognition of non-commensal organisms, elicit a complex series of immunoregulatory and signaling molecules that maintain gut homeostasis. [51, 52] Disruption of the commensal intestinal community and balance between immune tolerance and activation has the potential to elicit systemic metabolic and inflammatory responses that may manifest as diabetes, obesity, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), atopy and asthma. [5356] The “hygiene hypothesis” suggests that antibiotic use in early childhood results in delayed acquisition of normal enteric flora and is associated with increased risk for allergic disease [57, 58]. Studies to understand the development of the neonatal microbiome and the relationship to lung disease are underway.

Genomic medicine

Advances in genomic medicine are currently being applied in many aspects of neonatal care and will contribute immensely to our understanding of neonatal disorders. For example microarray analyses can interrogate 1.8 million or more probes of common nucleotide and copy number variation across the human genome and are used in routine clinical evaluation to detect genetic aberrations that may be responsible for structural defects of multiple organ systems. The continuing evolution and increasing capacity of next-generation DNA sequencing technology has permitted rapid detection of rare mutations in candidate genes and the application of this technology for clinical decision-making. [59, 60] Furthermore, as the capacity increases and cost decreases, sequencing the entire protein coding regions of the genome, the exome, will soon be within reach to identify the genetic basis of many Mendelian disorders. [61] As the role of non-coding and regulatory regions of the genome, microRNAs, and epigenetic regulation are more thoroughly understood, sequencing the entire genome holds promise for identifying the complex interactions among networks of genes that account for disease. The next major hurdle will be to translate this mechanistic knowledge into preventative strategies or therapeutic interventions. [62]

Other “-omics:” proteomics / lipidomics / metabolomics

Enhanced development of powerful and sensitive mass spectrometry techniques has led to the identification of novel protein, lipid, and metabolic biomarkers that can provide insights into mechanisms of disease and inform potential therapeutic interventions. [6366] For example, proteomic analysis of serum in infants with late onset sepsis or NEC led to identification of Proapolipoprotein CII and a des-arginine variant of serum amyloid A that permitted risk differentiation and informed decision making for antibiotic administration. [67] Elevated serum levels of KL-6, a glycoprotein that is expressed in type II and bronchiolar cells, may help differentiate children with interstitial lung disease due to surfactant dysfunction mutations from children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). [68] Targeted lipidomic analysis of surfactant phospholipids has permitted further understanding of in vivo surfactant metabolism. [69, 70] As shotgun methods to identify these biomarkers become more clinically accessible, more refined diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of response to treatment will become possible.

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells

An exciting new area of investigation for understanding patient-specific mechanisms of disease has been the discovery that transfection of transcription factors Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 into somatic cells, such as skin-derived fibroblasts, can result in reprogramming into pluripotent stem cells. [71, 72] These iPS cells can then be directed to differentiate into cells from the organ of interest, such as heart or lung, in which patient-specific mechanisms of disease and patient-specific therapeutic interventions can then be studied. [7376] In addition, in vitro correction of mutations using zinc finger nucleases in a cell along the pathway from fibroblast to differentiated cell with subsequent transplantation of these corrected cells offers another promise of therapeutic interventions for patients with diseases of genetic origin. [7779] Obviously, many anticipated and unanticipated hurdles remain before these possibilities are realized; however, this burgeoning field of investigation will provide novel insights into mechanisms of development and disease.

Conclusions

These and other new approaches will gain more widespread utility in the near future and will provide an exciting new array of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the care of newborns and patients in general, will permit insights into patient specific mechanisms of disease, will enhance our understanding of fetal and childhood determinants of adult disease, and ultimately will provide the ability to develop patient-specific therapeutic interventions as we move toward the goal of “personalized” medicine.

References

1. Whitsett JA, Haitchi HM, Maeda Y. Intersections between pulmonary development and disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(4):401–406. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
2. Maeda Y, Dave V, Whitsett JA. Transcriptional control of lung morphogenesis. Physiol Rev. 2007;87(1):219–244. [PubMed]
3. Minoo P, Su G, Drum H, Bringas P, Kimura S. Defects in tracheoesophageal and lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(−/−) mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 1999;209(1):60–71. [PubMed]
4. Guillot L, Carre A, Szinnai G, Castanet M, Tron E, Jaubert F, Broutin I, Counil F, Feldmann D, Clement A, Polak M, Epaud R. NKX2-1 mutations leading to surfactant protein promoter dysregulation cause interstitial lung disease in "Brain-Lung-Thyroid Syndrome". Hum Mutat. 2010;31(2):E1146–E1162. [PubMed]
5. Krude H, Schutz B, Biebermann H, von Moers A, Schnabel D, Neitzel H, Tonnies H, Weise D, Lafferty A, Schwarz S, DeFelice M, von Deimling A, van Landeshem F, Di Lauro R, Gruters A. Choreoathetosis, hypothyroidism, and pulmonary alterations due to human NKX2-1 haploinsufficiency. J Clin Invest. 2002;109(4):475–480. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
6. Stankiewicz P, Sen P, Bhatt SS, Storer M, Xia Z, Bejjani BA, et al. Genomic and genic deletions of the FOX gene cluster on 16q24.1 and inactivating mutations of FOXF1 cause alveolar capillary dysplasia and other malformations. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84(6):780–791. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
7. Yu S, Shao L, Kilbride H, Zwick DL. Haploinsufficiencies of FOXF1 and FOXC2 genes associated with lethal alveolar capillary dysplasia and congenital heart disease. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A(5):1257–1262. [PubMed]
8. Shaw-Smith C. Genetic factors in esophageal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula and the VACTERL association: roles for FOXF1 and the 16q24.1 FOX transcription factor gene cluster, and review of the literature. Eur J Med Gene. 2010;53(1):6–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Bielinska M, Jay PY, Erlich JM, Mannisto S, Urban Z, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB. Molecular genetics of congenital diaphragmatic defects. Ann Med. 2007;39(4):261–274. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
10. Jay PY, Bielinska M, Erlich JM, Mannisto S, Pu WT, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB. Impaired mesenchymal cell function in Gata4 mutant mice leads to diaphragmatic hernias and primary lung defects. Dev Biol. 2007;301(2):602–614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
11. Pober BR. Genetic aspects of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Clin Genetics. 2008;74(1):1–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
12. Ackerman KG, Herron BJ, Vargas SO, Herron BJ, Vargas SO, Huang H, Tevosian SG, Kochilas L, Rao C, Pober BR, Babiuk RP, Epstein JA, Greer JA, Beier DR. Fog2 is required for normal diaphragm and lung development in mice and humans. PLoS Genet. 2005;1(1):58–65. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
13. Sanchez-Esteban J, Cicchiello LA, Wang Y, Tsai SW, Williams LK, Torday JS, Rubin LP. Mechanical stretch promotes alveolar epithelial type II cell differentiation. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(2):589–595. [PubMed]
14. Sandler DL, Burchfield DJ, McCarthy JA, Rojiani AM, Drummond WH. Early-onset respiratory failure caused by severe congenital neuromuscular disease. J Pediatr. 1994;124(4):636–638. [PubMed]
15. Roberts AB, Mitchell J. Pulmonary hypoplasia and fetal breathing in preterm premature rupture of membranes. Early Hum Dev. 1995;41(1):27–37. [PubMed]
16. Ward CJ, Yuan D, Masyuk TV, Wang X, Punyashthiti R, Whelan S, Bacallao R, Torra R, LaRusso NF, Torres VE, Harris PC. Cellular and subcellular localization of the ARPKD protein; fibrocystin is expressed on primary cilia. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12(20):2703–2710. [PubMed]
17. Driscoll JA, Bhalla S, Liapis H, Ibricevic A, Brody S. . Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease Is associated with an increased prevalence of radiographic bronchiectasis. Chest. 2008;133(5):1181–1188. [PubMed]
18. Alcalay NI, Vanden Heuvel GB. Regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the kidney. Front Biosci. 2009;14:4978–4991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Wright JR. Clearance and recycling of pulmonary surfactant. Am J Physio. 1990;259:L1–L12. [PubMed]
20. Batenburg JJ. Surfactant phospholipids: synthesis and storage. Am J Physiol. 1992;262(4 Pt 1):L367–L385. [PubMed]
21. Jobe AH. Pulmonary surfactant therapy. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(12):861–868. [PubMed]
22. Carre A, Szinnai G, Castanet M, Sura-Trueba S, Tron E, Broutin-L'Hermite I, et al. Five new TTF1/NKX2.1 mutations in brain-lung-thyroid syndrome: rescue by PAX8 synergism in one case. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18(12):2266–2276. [PubMed]
23. Faro A, Hamvas A. Lung transplantation for inherited disorders of surfactant metabolism. NeoReviews. 2008;9:e468–e476.
24. Nogee L, de Mello DE, Dehner LP, Colten HR. Brief report: deficiency of pulmonary surfactant protein B in congenital alveolar proteinosis. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:406–410. [PubMed]
25. Nogee L, Dunbar AE, III, Wert SE, Askin F, Hamvas A, Whitsett JA. A mutation in the surfactant protein C gene associated with familial interstitial lung disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:573–579. [PubMed]
26. Shulenin SNL, Annilo T, Wert SE, Whitsett JA, Dean M. ABCA3 gene mutations in newborns with fatal surfactant deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1296–1303. [PubMed]
27. Li Y, Marcoux M-O, Gineste M, Vanpee M, Zelenina M, Casper C. Expression of water and ion transporters in tracheal aspirates from neonates with respiratory distress. Acta Pædiatr. 2009;98(11):1729–1737. [PubMed]
28. Goolaerts A, Roux JRM, Ganter MT, Shlyonsky V, Chraibi A, Stephane R, et al. Serotonin decreases alveolar epithelial fluid transport via a direct inhibition of the epithelial sodium channel. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43(1):99–108. 2010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
29. Eaton DC, Helms MN, Koval M, Bao HF, Jain The contribution of epithelial sodium channels to alveolar function in health and disease. Annu Rev Physiol. 2009;71:403–423. [PubMed]
30. Mazor M, Alkrinawi S, Chalifa-Caspi V, Manor E, Sheffield VC, Aviram M, Parvari R. Primary ciliary dyskinesia caused by homozygous mutation in DNAL1, encoding dynein light chain 1. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88(5):599–607. [PubMed]
31. Geremek M, Bruinenberg M, Zietkiewicz E, Pogorzelski A, Witt M, Wijmenga C. Gene expression studies in cells from primary ciliary dyskinesia patients identify 208 potential ciliary genes. Hum Genet. 2011;129(3):283–293. [PubMed]
32. Barbato A, Frischer T, Kuehni CE, Snijders D, Azevedo I, Baktai G. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a consensus statement on diagnostic and treatment approaches in children. Eur Respir J. 2009;34(6):1264–1276. [PubMed]
33. Bhandari V, Choo-Wing R, Lee CG, Yusuf K, Nedrelow JH, Ambalavanan N, Malkus H, Homer RJ, Elias JA. Developmental regulation of NO-mediated VEGF-induced effects in the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;39(4):420–430. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
34. Cheah FC, Jobe AH, Moss TJ, Newnham JP, Kallapur SG. Oxidative stress in fetal lambs exposed to intra-amniotic endotoxin in a chorioamnionitis model. Pediatr Res. 2008;63(3):274–279. [PubMed]
35. Famuyide ME, Hasday JD, Carter HC, Chesko KL, He JR, Viscardi RM. Surfactant protein-A limits ureaplasma-mediated lung inflammation in a murine pneumonia model. Pediatr Res. 2009;66(2):162–167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
36. Qian L, Liu H, Yu W, Wang X, Sun Z, Wang W, Zhu L, Sun B. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure, inhaled nitric oxide and surfactant on expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors in preterm piglet lungs. Pediatr Res. 2008;64(1):17–23. [PubMed]
37. Rehan VK, Sakurai R, Torday JS. Thirdhand smoke: a new dimension to the effects of cigarette smoke on the developing lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301(1):L1–L8. 2011. [PubMed]
38. Baraldi E, Filippone M. Chronic lung disease after premature birth. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(19):1946–1955. [PubMed]
39. Brody AS, Klein JS, Molina PL, Quan J, Bean JA, Wilmott RW. High-resolution computed tomography in young patients with cystic fibrosis: distribution of abnormalities and correlation with pulmonary function tests. J Pediatr. 2004;145(1):32–38. [PubMed]
40. Sanders DB, Li Z, Brody AS, Farrell PM. Chest computed tomography scores of severity are associated with future lung disease progression in children with cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(7):816–821. 2011. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
41. Bannier E, Cieslar K, Mosbah K, Aubert F, Duboeuf F, Salhi Z, Gaileard S, Berthezene Y, Cremillieux Y, Reix P. Hyperpolarized 3He MR for sensitive imaging of ventilation function and treatment efficiency in young cystic fibrosis patients with normal lung function. Radiology. 2010;255(1):225–232. [PubMed]
42. Narayanan M, Owers-Bradley J, Beardsmore CS, Mada M, Ball I, Garipov R, Panesar KS, Kuehni CE, Spycher BD, Williams SE, Silverman M. Alveolarization continues during childhood and adolescence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(2):186–191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
43. Rich JD, Shah SJ, Swamy RS, Kamp A, Rich S. Inaccuracy of Doppler echocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension: implications for clinical practice. Chest. 2011;139(5):988–993. [PubMed]
44. Holland MR, Gibson AA, Kirschner CA, Hicks D, Ludomirsky A, Singh GK. Intrinsic myoarchitectural differences between the left and right ventricles of fetal human hearts: an ultrasonic backscatter feasibility study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22(2):170–176. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
45. Holland MR, Wilkenshoff UM, Finch-Johnston AE, Handley SM, Perez JE, Miller JG. Effects of myocardial fiber orientation in echocardiography: quantitative measurements and computer simulation of the regional dependence of backscattered ultrasound in the parasternal short-axis view. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1998;11(10):929–937. [PubMed]
46. Korinek J, Wang J, Sengupta PP, Miyazaki C, Kjaergaard J, McMahon E, Abraham TP, Belohlavek M. Two-dimensional strain--a Doppler-independent ultrasound method for quantitation of regional deformation: validation in vitro and in vivo. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005;18(12):1247–1253. [PubMed]
47. Lorch SM, Ludomirsky A, Singh GK. Maturational and growth-related changes in left ventricular longitudinal strain and strain rate measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy pediatric population. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2008;21(11):1207–1215. [PubMed]
48. Urheim S, Edvardsen T, Torp H, Angelsen B, Smiseth OA. Myocardial strain by Doppler echocardiography. Validation of a new method to quantify regional myocardial function. Circulation. 2000;102(10):1158–1164. [PubMed]
49. Peterson J, Garges S, Giovanni M, McInnes P, Wang L, Schloss JA, et al. The NIH human microbiome project. Genome Res. 2009;19(12):2317–2323. [PubMed]
50. Artis D. Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(6):411–420. [PubMed]
51. Mason KL, Huffnagle GB, Noverr MC, Kao JY. Overview of gut immunology. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;635:1–14. [PubMed]
52. Medzhitov R. Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature. 2007;449(7164):819–826. [PubMed]
53. Jilling T, Simon D, Lu J, Meng FJ, Li D, Schy R, Thomson RB, Soliman A, Arditi M, Caplan MS. The roles of bacteria and TLR4 in rat and murine models of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Immunol. 2006;177(5):3273–3282. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
54. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, et al. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. 2009;457(7228):480–484. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
55. Wen L, Ley RE, Volchkov PY, Stranges PB, Avanesyan L, Stonebraker AC, Hu C, Wong FS, Szot GL, Bluestone JA, Gordon JL, Chervonsky AV. Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of type 1 diabetes. Nature. 2008;455(7216):1109–1113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
56. Penders J, Thijs C, van den Brandt PA, Kummeling I, Snijders B, Stelma F, Adams H, van Ree R, Stobberingh EE. Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Gut. 2007;56(5):661–667. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
57. Adlerberth I, Lindberg E, Aberg N, Hesselmar B, Saalman R, Strannegard IL, Wold AE. Reduced enterobacterial and increased staphylococcal colonization of the infantile bowel: an effect of hygienic lifestyle? Pediatr Res. 2006;59(1):96–101. [PubMed]
58. Kozyrskyj AL, Ernst P, Becker AB. Increased risk of childhood asthma from antibiotic use in early life. Chest. 2007;131(6):1753–1759. [PubMed]
59. Biesecker LG. Exome sequencing makes medical genomics a reality. Nat Genet. 2010;42(1):13–14. [PubMed]
60. Metzker ML. Sequencing technologies - the next generation. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11(1):31–46. [PubMed]
61. Bamshad MJ, Ng SB, Bigham AW, Tabor HK, Emond MJ, Nickerson DA, Shendure J. Exome sequencing as a tool for Mendelian disease gene discovery. Nat Rev Gene. 2011;12(11):745–755. [PubMed]
62. Dietz HC. New therapeutic approaches to mendelian disorders. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(9):852–863. [PubMed]
63. Lacy P. Metabolomics of sepsis-induced acute lung injury: a new approach for biomarkers. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;300(1):L1–L3. [PubMed]
64. Barnett N, Ware LB. Biomarkers in acute lung injury--marking forward progress. Crit Care Clin. 2011;27(3):661–683. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
65. Ollero M, Guerrera IC, Astarita G, Piomelli D, Edelman A. New lipidomic approaches in cystic fibrosis. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;742:265–278. [PubMed]
66. Ware LB, Matthay MA. Beyond fishing: the role of discovery proteomics in mechanistic lung research. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296(1):L12–L13. [PubMed]
67. Ng PC, Ang IL, Chiu RWK, Li K, Lam HS, Wong RP, Chui KM, Cheung HM, Ng EW, Fok TF, Sung JJ, Lo YM, Poon TC. Host-response biomarkers for diagnosis of late-onset septicemia and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. J Clin Invest. 2010;120(8):2989–3000. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
68. Doan ML, Elidemir O, Dishop MK, Zhang H, Smith EO, Black PG, Deterding RR, Roberts DM, Al-Salmi QA, Fan LL. Serum KL-6 differentiates neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from the inborn errors of surfactant metabolism. Thorax. 2009;64(8):677–681. [PubMed]
69. Cogo PE, Ori C, Simonato M, Verlato G, Isak I, Hamvas A, Carnielli VP. Metabolic precursors of surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine in preterms with respiratory distress. J Lipid Res. 2009;50(11):2324–2331. [PubMed]
70. Bohlin K, Patterson BW, Spence KL, Merchak A, Zozobrado JC, Zimmerman LJ, Carnielli VP, Hamvas A. Metabolic kinetics of pulmonary surfactant in newborn infants using endogenous stable isotope techniques. J Lipid Res. 2005;46(6):1257–1265. [PubMed]
71. Takahashi K, Yamanaka S. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell. 2006;126(4):663–676. [PubMed]
72. Somers A, Jean J-C, Sommer CA, Omari A, Ford CC, Mills JA, et al. Generation of transgene-free lung disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells using a single excisable lentiviral stem cell cassette. Stem Cells. 2010;28(10):1728–1740. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
73. Malan D, Friedrichs S, Fleischmann BK, Sasse P. Cardiomyocytes obtained from induced pluripotent stem cells with long-QT syndrome 3 recapitulate typical disease-specific features in vitro. Circ Res. 2011;109(8):841–847. [PubMed]
74. Moretti A, Bellin M, Welling A, Jung CB, Lam JT, Bott-Flugel L, et al. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem-cell models for long-QT syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(15):1397–1409. [PubMed]
75. Wang D, Haviland DL, Burns AR, Zsigmond E, Wetsel RA. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(11):4449–4454. [PubMed]
76. Wetsel RA, Wang D, Calame DG. Therapeutic potential of lung epithelial progenitor cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Annu Rev Med. 2011;62:95–105. [PubMed]
77. Wang D, Morales JE, Calame DG, Alcorn JL, Wetsel RA. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived alveolar epithelial type II cells abrogates acute lung injury in mice. Mol Ther. 2010;18(3):625–634. [PubMed]
78. Collin J, Lako M. Concise review: putting a finger on stem cell biology: zinc finger nuclease-driven targeted genetic editing in human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells. 2011;29(7):1021–1033. [PubMed]
79. Connelly JP, Barker JC, Pruett-Miller S, Porteus MH. Gene correction by homologous recombination with zinc finger nucleases in primary cells from a mouse model of a generic recessive genetic disease. Mol Ther. 2010;18(6):1103–1110. [PubMed]