Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella
sp is one of the most common causes of systemic infections in India and is one of the common causes of travel associated illnesses 
. Several developing countries recently reported the emergence and spread of drug resistant Salmonella typhi
that resulted in significant increase in morbidity of typhoid fever and a frantic search for inexpensive but effective alternative drug. MDR strains of S.
Typhi have been reported from all parts of the world. Second-line antibiotics like the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, perfloxacin), third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefixime), and azithromycin are often now used for treating MDR typhoid fever. Infections with isolates susceptible to nalidixic acid (prototype fluoroquinolone) respond extremely well to fluoroquinolones. Lately, there have been several reports of fluoroquinolone-resistant S.
Quinolone-resistant strains are reportedly also MDR and infection with resistant S.
Typhi is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There are also reports from the Indian subcontinent of isolates that are fully resistant to fluoroquinolones and the extended spectrum cephalosporins .
These reports further support the need for alternative antibiotics such as azithromycin for treating enteric fever 
In the present study both groups were compared in terms of mean fever duration, mean fever clearance time, cure rate and relapse rate. Both groups were comparable in terms of mean age and fever duration prior to treatment. Similarly, no significant difference in mean fever clearance time and cure rate was observed between Azithromycin and ofloxacin treated group. Treatment was well tolerated with ofloxacin and azithromycin with only minor side effects. No major adverse effect was noted with these antibiotics.
Drug resistance in Salmonella
has been on the rise in India with emergence of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant (NAR) Salmonella
and an increasing clinical non-response to fluoroquinolones. Treatment options are getting limited with emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones. The Western studies have favoured azithromycin as the potential drug that produces good clinical response. However, due to the lack of breakpoint concentrations in various international guidelines, its in vitro
interpretation has often been difficult for Salmonella
. In the Western literature, treatment has heavily banked upon the use of azithromycin due to its high intracellular concentration and good clinical response. Clinical trials suggest the use of 20 mg/kg per day with a maximum dose of 1000 mg/day for 5 to 7 days for complete cure 
. Randomized trials have suggested similar efficacy of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin, both clinically and in vitro
studies, against enteric fever caused by sensitive as well as MDR.A trial conducted by Girgis et al., in Egypt compared the effectiveness and safety of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin in uncomplicated typhoid fever. This trial suggested the effectiveness of azithromycin in uncomplicated typhoid fever 
. However there was lack of substantial data in Indian population. This prompted us to compare the efficacy and safety of azithromycin with ofloxacin in patients with uncomplicated typhoid fever. Our study also suggests effectiveness of azithromycin in uncomplicated typhoid fever.
Some limitations of this study were as follows. A double-blind study could not be conducted due to financial constraints and logistic problems.