This study assesses the impact of insurance on the development of depression. The results indicate that the prevalence of depression is high in northwest China, and both health insurance and poverty (measured by Dibao) have long-term influences on depression. These findings suggest that China’s Basic Health Insurance system is a significant protective factor against depression. This research provides further empirical evidence to justify the current Chinese primary health reform strategy that seeks to increase access to Basic Health Insurance in the general population. Nonetheless, there has been a worldwide systematic discrimination against mental disorders, which resulted in an exclusion of mental disorders from some social and private health insurance, regardless of economic achievement and stage of development. Examples of this tendency include the U.S. [33
], some European countries [34
], and China [35
]. The rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change in China had significantly increased the depression among the Chinese elderly and adult population [4
]. Growing evidence suggests that Chinese people tend to view mental illness as a reflection of one's "inability to deal with social stress", "interpersonal conflict", or "personality deficits" [37
]. Depression literacy may conceal the real situation [39
]. In comparison, resources for mental health are scarce and unequally allocated [40
]. The WHO reported that the treatment gap for severe mental disorders was 35–50% for developed countries and 76–85% for low- and middle-income countries [41
]. Chinese policymakers should value the importance of mental health and invest greater resources in the future. Accordingly, China needs to reconsider its health care and service delivery system to accommodate the rapidly increasing issue of mental health. Specifically, China may need to increase mental health insurance coverage and encourage more non-psychiatric hospitals to offer psychiatric services.
The possible reason that may explain the impact of health insurance on reducing the risk of having depression is that obtaining insurance coverage can increase one’s sense of security while reducing the financial and psychological stresses created by medical treatment. Further studies are needed to indentify more reasons that may explain the relationship between health insurance and depression in China.
Survey data indicate that those who had no insurance at baseline but acquired coverage at the second follow-up still faced a higher risk of depression. This finding possibly results from the fact that data collection was prematurely conducted after the initiation of the new health insurance policy. The Basic Health Insurance scheme was launched in the summer of 2007 but was officially put into practice in the surveyed area in September. The second follow-up survey was performed between December 2007 and January 2008, and 636 participants were new insurance enrollees, comprising up to 33.7% of the sample, which was significantly higher than the 7.4% (n
164) participants reported at the first follow-up. The percentage of participants without insurance dropped from 52.7% at the first follow-up (December 2006) to 23.6% at the second follow-up. Thus, the majority of newly enrolled participants acquired insurance quite recently during the survey. However, it is unlikely that they had any chance of using their insurance at the time of the survey. Thus, the impact of insurance may not be apparent in the data.
This study shows that there is a high prevalence of depression in Northwest China. When 21 score was used as the cutoff point, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 55%, the prevalence of depression in northwestern Chinese cities was 14.6-16.2%. This rate was higher than that for mood disorders in general (6.7%) [4
] and depression specifically among rural residents over 55 years of age (6%) [5
]. This high prevalence might partially be linked to the location in which the survey was conducted. A previous population-based epidemiological study reported that the depression prevalence is significantly higher in northwestern part of China compared with the eastern and northern parts of the country [36
Poverty is another important risk factor for depression. In addition to the demographic and socioeconomic factors, we also considered the effects of several other indicators, including major family or personal events, economic poverty (Dibao), personal health behaviors, and physical health status (diseases within the previous four weeks), all of which are factors closely related to depression according to previous studies. The three most significant predictors of depression are health insurance status, baseline depressive status, and poverty (Dibao). All other factors showed no long-term predictive relationship with depressive symptoms. In addition, prior studies proved that poverty and its associated psychosocial stressors, such as violence, unemployment, and insecurity, were correlated with the onset of adult mental disorders [42
]. Another study showed that 70% of patients with mental illness within the lowest income group did not receive treatment due to their disadvantaged financial situation [43
]. The government should give priority to poverty-stricken counties and provide them with essential financial assistance.
Due to the complexity of the topic, many other factors might interfere with the research conclusions. For instance, employment status is likely to be an important intervening factor in the relationship between health insurance and depression, as 94.9% of the people with insurance were enrolled in the employment-based BHIS. A previous study demonstrated a significant association between employment and self-reported state of health [44
]. The presumed impact of health insurance enrollment on depression may be weakened by the factor of employment. However, no significant correlation between employment status and depression is found in this study, which indicates that the correlation between health insurance and depression is independent of employment status.
The quality of the data collected from the survey was satisfactory. The household, instead of the individual, comprised the survey sampling unit. Households were required to have at least one member 16 years of age or older to participate. Because the majority of the surveyed households had two members older than 16 years of age, the likelihood of each adult responding to the depression questions in each household was presumably 50%. According to this sampling design, the chance of each participant of the baseline depression survey being followed up in the successive surveys was also 50%. The actual follow-up rates of the study were 54.4% and 46.3% at the two follow-ups, which were reasonably acceptable given this design. Furthermore, because sample loss was random, the list-wise approach was employed to deal with missing data [45
Limitations and future trends
This study had several limitations. First, we did not include variables reflecting whether all participants had access to mental health services and to what extent they utilize the available services. Health insurance in China is still at a nascent level of development and does not provide full coverage for mental health treatment and rehabilitation. Second, we did not consider the effects of variables regarding the somatic expression of mental disorders and information concerning patients’ conditions provided by doctors. As discussed above, the Chinese tend to deny depression or express it somatically; neurosis is one such example [7
]. Most likely, people may be more willing to talk to their physicians about such issues, especially when somatic problems are developed as a result of psychological stresses, because primary health care is largely covered by existing health insurance programs. Although the results of this study indicate a significant relationship between health insurance and depression, this hypothesis can only be confirmed to a certain extent. Further research is clearly needed. Third, the CES-D scale is a screening tool, not a clinical diagnostic tool, and the reference PPV is adopted from the elderly population. Consequently, the depression prevalence estimate may be higher than it actually is. Fourth, consideration of socioeconomic status was not thorough in this study. For instance, using Dibao to benchmark income and using unemployment and retirement to measure employment status may be taken into account in future research to more rigorously investigate the impacts of income and occupation. Finally, despite the advantage of keeping the sample intact, the list-wise approach employed in the study results in a loss of information. Thus, it may be favorable for future studies to employ other methods to deal with missing data.