Nitroxyl (HNO) has gained interest as a potential treatment of congestive heart failure through the ability of the HNO donor, Angeli’s salt (AS), to evoke positive inotropic effects in canine cardiac muscle. The release of nitrite during decomposition limits the use of AS requiring other HNO sources. Acyloxy nitroso compounds liberate HNO and small amounts of nitrite upon hydrolysis and the synthesis of the water-soluble 4-nitrosotetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl acetate and pivalate allows for pig liver esterase (PLE)-catalysis increasing the rate of decomposition and HNO release. The pivalate derivative does not release HNO, but the addition of PLE catalyzes hydrolysis (t1/2 = 39 min) and HNO formation (65% after 30 min). In the presence of PLE, this compound converts metmyoglobin (MetMb) to iron nitrosyl Mb and oxyMb to metMb indicating these compounds only react with heme proteins as HNO donors. The pivalate in the presence and the absence of PLE inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with IC50 values of 3.5 and 3.3 μM, respectively, in a time-dependent manner. Reversibility assays reveal reversible inhibition of ALDH in absence of PLE and partially irreversible inhibition with PLE. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reveals formation of a disulfide upon incubation of an ALDH peptide without PLE and a mixture of disulfide and sulfinamide in the presence of PLE. A dehydroalanine residue forms upon incubation of this peptide with excess AS. These results identify acyloxy nitroso compounds as unique HNO donors capable of thiol modification through direct electrophilic reaction or HNO release.
Keywords: nitroxyl, nitric oxide, thiol protein, heme proteins, esterase, dehydroalanine