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The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of socio-demographic factors, gender and level of anxiety on quality of life in patients with asthma.
Asthma control test (ACT), Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form-36 (QoL-SF-36) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used as research tools. Disease severity was assessed according to GINA guidelines. Sixty five patients with asthma hospitalized at the Department of Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland between November 2010 and January 2011 entered the study, 39 women aged (mean ± SD) 58.2 ± 15.2 and 26 men - 54.8 ± 15.4.
Results observed in analyzing the STAI-measured trait anxiety we found that anxiety as a trait was less severe in men versus women (47.4 v 40.6; P = 0.01) also the state anxiety tended to be less severe in men; however we didn't find statistical significance. QoL-SF-36 results revealed lower quality of life of female when compared to male patients. Both the summed quality physical (PCS) and mental functioning (MCS), women scored lower than men: PCS: 32 versus 37 and MCS: 41 versus 48 points. Education increases the QoL measured by SF-36 questionnaire in PCS domain (Ht = 9.74; P = 0.020). Also, professional activity of patients and the duration of the disease influence both domains: MCS (Ht = 17.84; P = 0.001); PCS (Ht = 9.98; P = 0.040) and PCS (rs = -0.450; P = 0.0001) and MCS (rs = -0.251; P = 0.046), respectively. Also disease severity correlated inversely with QoL in both subdomains PCS (Ht = 12.21; P = 0.006), MCS (Ht = 8.88; P = 0.030). As it could have been anticipated, the level of asthma control (measured with ACT) correlates with QoL: PSC (rs = 0.571; P < 0.0001); MCS (rs = 0.373; P = 0.003). According to our data from QoL-SF-36 questionnaire age, type of work, marital status and smoking did not affect significantly patients’ quality of life.
Better education, professional activity and good disease control have positive impact on QoL of asthmatic patients, while disease severity and duration deteriorate it. Since women show much higher anxiety medical personnel attitude to female patients should consider it.