Scientific papers and articles are highly specialized manuscripts on research published in indexed scientific journals (1
). They are not intended for general readership, such as articles in popular and commercial media, but to closed highly specialized group of people. These are professionals who have the necessary knowledge about the topic or topics they deal in such scientific or professional journals.
The definition of the scientific article presented by a scientist, says: “The scientific article is written and published report of original research.” (1
The first thing author must think about is what to write and in what order, in order to create the best possible scientific article, which is the main way of communication among scientists. Each component of article needs to be clear, with a concise and understandable presentation of the research, which must follow the scientifically proven procedures in order to develop a logical and scientific thinking. The authors (with the help of their mentors, or as recommended by reviewers) are developing a protocol work and gather all the necessary materials for research and preparation, such as tables and charts that will later be improved. The preparation and design of article is different from person to person, and represent a process in which each author is trying to find their own way to approach the article, to write to its own style of writing that has gained over years of writing and mentoring (1
). Methodologically, the article should be written according to the reader and should have a unique style of writing from beginning to the end of an article (8
). Content of the article, in essence, is a plan for building work and the basis and pillar of the author’s imaginary parts. The basic idea is that any scientific or professional article must have the appropriate chapters or sections (1
Defining principles of Good Scientific (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) should encourage the development of standardized principles and guidelines for accurate and quality data in scientific research (1
). This creates a secure base of scientific knowledge which increases, and its reliability is used by other researchers to enhance the process of discovery and exchange of experiences which the researchers rapidly and inevitably included in the international exchange of work and knowledge. Exchange of data that are reliable and accurate will reduce the economic costs, exceeds the difference in technological development and saves time (1
Since the academic progress and financial gain are directly depending on the number of published articles, the phenomenon–“publish at any cost”, can cause all kinds of irregularities: intentional and unintentional errors as frauds and deceptions (1
). Some of these include violations– more legal, than ethical principles (12
). However, the socalled frauds from the gray zone (undeserved authorship, multiple publication, manipulation, etc.) are examples of misuse of science on an ethical basis. Therefore, the respect for and adherence to the principles and rules of good scientific practice are obligations of each research institution, university and every individual– researcher, no matter which area of science is explored (1
Research institutions and universities should, in accordance with the principles of GSP and GLP, have a center for monitoring, security, promotion and development of research quality. By establishment of high standards in research institutions and service delivery, this center will implement their objectives through the work of the Commission and appointed individuals who are familiar with the procedures of the research and know the standards of excellence in science. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution, i.e. university, taking responsibility for creating an environment that encourages and promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. The academic environment is the best possible environment for creating a good scientific offspring, future teachers and researchers.
The scientific way of thinking and application of scientific methods require honesty, criticality, trust, creativity and openness, and acceptance of these principles as desirable prerequisites for successful engagement in science by students and young researchers, qualifying research institution that produces competent promoters (initiators) for the future technological cultural and political development of society.
In addition to the principles of ethical codes that regulate the broader ethical issues in all aspects of science work, the rules in research laboratories (Good Laboratory Practice) defines the criteria for setting, monitoring and ensuring the basic principles of quality in scientific research. According to the principles of good laboratory practice includes standard of organizational processes and conditions under which scientific studies are planned, conducted, controlled and released to the public. Freedom in research is a necessary condition for research activities, and acquiring knowledge in any case cannot be restricted.
An important condition for quality scientific research is defining the scientific priorities in choosing a particular goal. As the specific scientific contribution is the result of aggregate share of each individual in the research group, it is expected that before starting work on a specific project the consent is achieved among all scientific researchers. In order for the proposed hypothesis to be accepted it must obtain the consent and confidence of the majority of competent scientists who are working in a given area (2
Code of Ethics clearly defines the obligations of managers, as well as the rights and obligations of each member of the research team. The research team must also consider the general principles (choice of literature, the application of appropriate methodologies, choice of statistical tests, and analysis of research results) in an open and creative atmosphere of discussion, and based on argument and their own knowledge and experience of team members, adopt the proposed methodology for the stated aim of the study.
World Medical Assocition adopted at General Assembly held in June 1964 in Helsinki, Finland the Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects (and amended by several WMA GA – Tokyo, 1975, Venice, 1983, Hong Kong, 1989, Somerset West, 1996, Edinburgh, 2000, etc.) (1
). Some of the are:
Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge, of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and on adequate laboratory and, where appropriate, animal experimentation.
The design and performance of each experimental procedure involving human subjects should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol. This protocol should be submitted for consideration, comment, guidance and where appropriate, approval to a specially appointed ethical review committee, which must be independent of the investigator, the sponsor or any other kind of undue influence. This independent committee should be in conformity with the laws and regulations of the country in which the research experiment is performed. The committee has the right to monitor ongoing trials. The researcher has the obligation to provide monitoring information to the committee, especially any serious adverse events. The researcher should also submit to the committee, for review, information regarding funding, sponsors, institutional affiliations, other potential conflicts of interest and incentives for subjects.
The research protocol should always contain a statement of the ethical considerations involved and should indicate that there is compliance with the principles enunciated in this Declaration.
Medical research involving human subjects should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons and under the supervision of a clinically competent medical person. The responsibility for the human subject must always rest with a medically qualified person and never rest on the subject of the research, even though the subject has given consent.
Every medical research project involving human subject should be preceded by careful assessment of predictable risks and burdens in comparison with foreseeable benefits to the subject or to others. This does not preclude the participation of healthy volunteers in medical research. The design of all studies should be publicly available.
Medical research is only justified if there is a reasonable likelihood that the populations in which the research is carried out stand to benefit from the results of the research.
The subject must be volunteers and informed participants in the research project.
The right of research subject to safeguard their integrity must always be respected. Every precaution should be taken to respect the privacy of the subject, the confidentiality of the patient’s information and to minimize the impact of the study on the subject’s physical and mental integrity and on the personality of the subject.
In any research on human beings, each potential subject must be adequately informed of the aims, methods, sources of funding, any possible, conflicts of interest, institutional affiliations of the researcher, the anticipated benefits and potential risks of the study and the discomfort if may entail. The subject should be informed of the right to abstain from participation in the study or to withdraw consent to participate at any time without reprisal. After ensuring that the subject has understood the information, the physician should then obtain the subject’s freely-given informed consent, preferably in writing. If the consent cannot be obtained in writing, the nonwritten consent must be formally documented and witnessed.
For a research subject who is legally incompetent, physically or mentally incapable of giving consent or is a legally incompetent minor, the investigator must obtain informed consent from the legally authorized representative in accordance with applicable law. There groups should not be included in research unless the research is necessary to promote the health of the population represented and this research cannot instead be performed on legally competent persons.
Research on individuals from whom it is not possible to obtain consent, including proxy or advance consent, should be done only if the physical/mental condition that prevents obtaining informed consent is a necessary characteristic of the research population. The specific reasons for involving research subjects with a condition that renders them unable to give informed consent should be stated in the experimental protocol for consideration and approval of the review committee. The protocol should state that consent to remain in the research should be obtained as soon as possible from the individual or a legally authorized surrogate.
Both authors and publishers have ethical obligations. In publication of the results of research, the investigators are obliged to preserve the accuracy of the results (1
). Negative as well as positive results should be published or otherwise publicly available. Sources of funding, institutional affiliations and any possible conflicts of interest should be declared in the publication. Reports of experimentation not in accordance with the principles laid down in this Declaration should not be accepted for publication.
The physician may combine medical research with medical care, only to the extent that the research is justified by its potential prophylactic, diagnostic or therapeutic value. When medical research is combined with medical care, additional standards apply to protect the patients who are research subjects.