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Logo of bmcpsycBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Psychiatry
BMC Psychiatry. 2012; 12: 123.
Published online Aug 22, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-244X-12-123
PMCID: PMC3502134
Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh
Tapash Roy,corresponding author1,5 Cathy E Lloyd,2 Masuma Parvin,3 Khondker Galib B Mohiuddin,4 and Mosiur Rahman5
1BRAC Health Programme, Dhaka, Bangladesh & Division of Research in Medicines and Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
2Faculty of Health & Social Care, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK
3Medical Education & Research Unit, Ministry of Health, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
4School of Business, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
5BRAC Health Programme, BRAC Centre (16th Floor), 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Tapash Roy: tapash_68/at/; Cathy E Lloyd: Cathy.Lloyd/at/; Masuma Parvin: acmasuma/at/; Khondker Galib B Mohiuddin: galib672003/at/; Mosiur Rahman: mosiur.ra/at/
Received January 19, 2012; Accepted August 16, 2012.
Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh.
In this cross-sectional study a random sample of 483 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics in Bangladesh was invited to participate. Of them 417 patients took part. Depressive symptoms were measured using previously developed and culturally standardized Bengali and Sylheti versions of the World HealthOrganization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5) and the Patient Health Questionairre-9 (PHQ-9) with predefined cut-off scores. Data was collected using two different modes; e.g. standard assisted collection and audio questionnaire methods. Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analysis.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34% (PHQ-9 score  5) and 36% (WHO-5 score < 52) with audio questionnaire delivery method. The prevalence rates were similar regardless of the type (PHQ-9 vs. WHO-5) and language (Sylheti vs. Bengali) of the questionnaires, and methods of delivery (standard assisted vs. audio methods). The significant predictors of depressive symptoms using either the PHQ-9 or WHO-5 questionnaires were; age, income, gender, treatment intensity, and co-morbid cardiovascular disease. Further, depression was strongly associated with poor glycaemic control and number of co-morbid conditions.
This study demonstrated that depression prevalence is common in out-patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery.
Keywords: Diabetes, Depression, Prevalence, Risk factors, Bangladesh
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