shows a worldwide map indicating the PI*Z gene frequency distribution. focuses on the PI*Z prevalence distribution in Europe. shows the PI*S frequency distribution worldwide.
World Map of the PI*Z Gene Frequency Distribution
Europe Map of the PI*Z Gene Frequency Distribution
World Map of the PI*S Gene Frequency Distribution
4.1. Worldwide Map of PI*Z Gene Frequency Distribution
In , black spots indicate the places where the epidemiological studies were conducted, and where the numerical data were obtained. A colored scale with shades of red and orange tones representing maximal values (21-40 x 1000), shades of yellow and green tones representing the intermediate ones (8-20 x 1000), and shades of blue tones representing the minimal values (0-8 per 1000) has been shown. The greatest number of black spots is located in Europe (). In contrast, spots are scattered and scanty in most of the remaining parts of the World. In general, maximal PI*Z frequencies are in European coastal regions near the Atlantic Ocean and its seas, and they gradually decrease to the west of this continent. Specifically, maximal PI*Z frequencies (20-40 per 1000) are found in the southern regions of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Denmark and Baltic Republics. Lower but still significantly high values of around 20 x 1000 are found in the Low Countries (i.e., Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, and parts of northern France and western Germany). Similar values have been found in the west coast of France, southern England, Ireland, southern regions of Great Britain, and northwestern regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Isolated points of high Z frequencies are also found in both the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Lazio regions of Italy, and in the southern Germany states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. In general, Z prevalence steadily decreases from the west to the east of the Continent, showing moderate values in some Central and Western Europe areas of Germany, Poland, Byelorussia, west of Ukraine, Macedonia, and the Black Sea coasts of Rumania and Bulgaria. PI*Z frequencies are low or very low in European Russia, Balkan Peninsula, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, and in remote areas of the northern Europe, practically disappearing in Lapland, and the southwestern regions of the Middle East. The PI*Z allele is practically absent in Northern and Eastern Asia. However, in several regions of the Middle-East (i.e., Saudi Arabia), Southern Asia (i.e., Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and the coastal enclaves on the Arabian Sea coast, Daman and Diu, in Northwest India), Southeastern Asia (Thailand) and Maritime Southeast Asia (Malaysia) moderate values of the PI*Z frequency were found. Some regions of Eastern Africa (such as: Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya) and Western Africa (i.e., Morocco, Mauritania and Mali) also showed moderate frequencies of PI*Z allele. In the remaining regions of the African Continent the PI*Z frequency is very low or absent. Moderate and high frequencies of PI*Z were found in New Zealand, and in the Australian states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. In the Americas, high and moderate PI*Z frequencies were found in the southwestern coast of Greenland, in several regions of Canada (i.e., British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador). In North America, high PI*Z frequencies were shown in those States located around the Great Lakes area, and also in Arizona. Moderate or low frequencies were found in the remaining zones of the U.S., and in Mexico. Moderate or low frequencies of 8-10 × 1000 were found in Central America, Caribbean Islands, and in most regions of South America.
4.2. Distribution of PI*S Gene Frequencies Worldwide
In again the black spots indicate the sources of the data. A colored scale, with shades of red and orange tones representing maximal values (63-188 × 1000), shades of yellow and green tones the intermediate ones (20-62 × 1000), and shades of blue tones the minimal values (0-20 per 1000), has been shown. Once more, the greatest number of studies was performed in Europe, while scanty and scattered data in many other remaining geographical areas was observed. Maximal PI*S frequencies were found both in Africa and Europe. Very high PI*S frequencies were found in the Iberian Peninsula, and south-western France in accordance with previous reports. Values slowly decrease to the north and the east of the European continent. The PI*S allele is practically absent in Asia, except in some isolated areas of Saudi Arabia, Thailand and Malaysia. Surprisingly, the IDW map also showed unsuspected very high frequencies in extensive regions of Africa, with the highest PI*S frequencies worldwide found in the coastal regions of Middle and Southern Africa, corresponding to the political states of Angola, Namibia, Gabon, Congo, Botswana, and South Africa. Very high frequencies were also found in the northwestern regions of Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania. High PI*S frequencies were also found in other several countries of Western, Northern, Middle and Eastern Africa regions, such as: Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Libya, Uganda and Madagascar. In the Americas, high values of PI*S were found in the Ontario province of Canada, the Florida Peninsula in the United States, several areas of Central America, the Caribbean islands, and the South American countries of Venezuela, Chile and Uruguay. In Greenland, the remaining regions of Canada, U.S.A, Mexico, and South-America, intermediate values of PI*S frequency were found. Finally, moderate values of PI*S were found in New Zealand, and high or moderate values in the Australia regions of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and in Tasmania.