Results of the first Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test. Difference scores for each minute of the CS and the first minute of the post-CS period, displayed separately for action (seeking or taking) and group (extinction or rewarded). A–B, results for the rewarded group for the seeking lever (A) and taking lever (B). C–D, results for the extinction group for the seeking lever (C) and taking lever (D). Means + SEM.