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BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 427.
Published online Jun 12, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2458-12-427
PMCID: PMC3490777
Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities
David R Lubans,corresponding author1 Philip J Morgan,1 Kristen Weaver,1 Robin Callister,2 Deborah L Dewar,1 Sarah A Costigan,1 Tara L Finn,1 Jordan Smith,1 Lee Upton,1 and Ronald C Plotnikoff1
1School of Education, Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, Australia
2School of Health Sciences, Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, Australia
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
David R Lubans: David.Lubans/at/newcastle.edu.au; Philip J Morgan: Philip.Morgan/at/newcastle.edu.au; Kristen Weaver: Kristen.Weaver/at/newcastle.edu.au; Robin Callister: Robin.Callister/at/newcastle.edu.au; Deborah L Dewar: Deborah.Dewar/at/newcastle.edu.au; Sarah A Costigan: Sarah.Costigan/at/newcastle.edu.au; Tara L Finn: Tara.Finn/at/newcastle.edu.au; Jordan Smith: Jordan.Smith/at/newcastle.edu.au; Lee Upton: Lee.Upton/at/newcastle.edu.au; Ronald C Plotnikoff: Ron.Plotnikoff/at/newcastle.edu.au
Received May 7, 2012; Accepted May 21, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend.
Methods/design
The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored.
Discussion
SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The findings from the study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and school policy in primary schools.
Trial registration
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910
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