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Protein interactions between TOC1 and ZTL from N. attenuata and A. thaliana using a yeast two-hybrid assay. (A) Growth of the yeast cells carrying prey and bait constructs indicated on the top of each panel. The ZTL proteins were fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain (bait), and the TOC1 proteins were fused to the GAL4 activation domain (prey). The yeast cells can grow on QD medium when bait and prey proteins physically bind. (B) Mean (± SE) levels of β-galactosidase activity of the yeast carrying prey and bait constructs. BD, empty vector expressing binding domain; AD, empty vector expressing activation domain; -LW, synthetic dropout (SD) yeast growth medium lacking leucine and tryptophan; QD, SD medium lacking Leu, Trp, histidine, and adenine.