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BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 418.
Published online Jun 8, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2458-12-418
PMCID: PMC3489582
Epidemic features affecting the performance of outbreak detection algorithms
Jie Kuang,1 Wei Zhong Yang,2 Ding Lun Zhou,1 Zhong Jie Li,2 and Ya Jia Lancorresponding author1
1Department of Occupational Health, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, 17 South Section 3 Renmin Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China
2Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), 155 Changbai Road Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Jie Kuang: ktorresjie/at/gmail.com; Wei Zhong Yang: yangwz/at/chinacdc.cn; Ding Lun Zhou: zhoudinglun/at/163.com; Zhong Jie Li: lizj/at/chinacdc.cn; Ya Jia Lan: lanyajia/at/sina.com
Received January 17, 2012; Accepted June 8, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Outbreak detection algorithms play an important role in effective automated surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed to improve the performance of outbreak detection, few published studies have examined how epidemic features of infectious disease impact on the detection performance of algorithms. This study compared the performance of three outbreak detection algorithms stratified by epidemic features of infectious disease and examined the relationship between epidemic features and performance of outbreak detection algorithms.
Methods
Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), cumulative sum (CUSUM) and moving percentile method (MPM) algorithms were applied. We inserted simulated outbreaks into notifiable infectious disease data in China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS), and compared the performance of the three algorithms with optimized parameters at a fixed false alarm rate of 5% classified by epidemic features of infectious disease. Multiple linear regression was adopted to analyse the relationship of the algorithms’ sensitivity and timeliness with the epidemic features of infectious diseases.
Results
The MPM had better detection performance than EWMA and CUSUM through all simulated outbreaks, with or without stratification by epidemic features (incubation period, baseline counts and outbreak magnitude). The epidemic features were associated with both sensitivity and timeliness. Compared with long incubation, short incubation had lower probability (β* = −0.13, P < 0.001) but needed shorter time to detect outbreaks (β* = −0.57, P < 0.001). Lower baseline counts were associated with higher probability (β* = −0.20, P < 0.001) and longer time (β* = 0.14, P < 0.001). The larger outbreak magnitude was correlated with higher probability (β* = 0.55, P < 0.001) and shorter time (β* = −0.23, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The results of this study suggest that the MPM is a prior algorithm for outbreak detection and differences of epidemic features in detection performance should be considered in automatic surveillance practice.
Keywords: Epidemic feature, Outbreak detection algorithms, Performance, Automated infectious disease surveillance
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