Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjoBMJ OpenVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
BMJ Open. 2012; 2(5): e001575.
Published online 2012 October 25. doi:  10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001575
PMCID: PMC3488716

Translation and testing of the Risk Assessment Pressure Ulcer Sore scale used among residents in Norwegian nursing homes



The purpose of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of the Norwegian-language version of the Risk Assessment Pressure Sore (RAPS) scale.


Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer (PU) prevention have become an aspect of quality improvement in healthcare, but their effectiveness depends on the reliability and validity of the scale.


 A convenience sample of 481 residents in 15 nursing homes in rural Norway was included between January and June 2007. The English-language version of the RAPS scale was translated into Norwegian, and this scale was used to collect the data, including a skin examination. The number of PUs and grades were documented. Reliability was assessed in a small group of 26 residents and construct validity in the total study group.


Equivalence between two assessments regarding total scores of the RAPS scale was reflected in an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.95. Construct validity was supported, and the RAPS scale could define groups with expected low and high scores. Further evidence of construct validity was shown in a confirmatory factor analysis.


The Norwegian version of the RAPS scale has shown sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable and valid scale for identifying risk of PUs among nursing home residents. However, further testing is needed.


Articles from BMJ Open are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group