1. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2010, 2010.
2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe
HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe 2010. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2011.
3. Department of Health and Social Development of Russian Federation, Federal Service for supervision of Consumer Protection and Human Welfare, Federal Government Central Science Research Agency Institute of Epidemiology, Federal Research and Methodological Center for Prevention and Control of AIDS
HIV INFECTION Newsletter № 35. Moscow, 2011.
Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards Universal Access. Progress Report
5. Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Phillips B, et al.
Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet
6. UNGASS ed. UNGASS Country Progress Report: Republic of Moldova. Chisinau, Moldova, 2010.
7. Bargagli AM, Hickman M, Davoli M, et al.
Drug-related mortality and its impact on adult mortality in eight European countries. Eur J Pub Health
2006;16:198–202. [PubMed] 8. Degenhardt L, Hall W, Warner-Smith M.
Using cohort studies to estimate mortality among injecting drug users that is not attributable to AIDS. Sex Transm Infect
2006;82(suppl 3):iii56–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
9. Cusick L.
Widening the harm reduction agenda: from drug use to sex work. Int J Drug Policy
10. Poundstone KE, Strathdee S, Celentano DD.
The social epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Epidemiol Rev
11. Rhodes T.
The ‘risk environment’: a framework for understanding and reducing drug-related harm. Int J Drug Policy
12. Rhodes T, Singer M, Bourgois P, et al.
The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users. Soc Sci Med
2005;61:1026–44. [PubMed] 13. Sumartojo E.
Structural factors in HIV prevention: concepts, examples, and implications for research. Aids
2000;14(suppl 1):S3–10. [PubMed] 14. Latkin CA, Hua W, Forman VL.
The relationship between social network characteristics and exchanging sex for drugs or money among drug users in Baltimore, MD, USA. Int J STD AIDS
15. Latkin C, Mandell W, Vlahov D, et al.
Personal network characteristics as antecedents to needle-sharing and shooting gallery attendance. Social Netw
16. Donoghoe MC, Lazarus JV, Matic S.
HIV/AIDS in the transitional countries of eastern Europe and central Asia. Clin Med J R College Physicians
17. Rhodes T, Wagner K, Strathdee SA, et al.
Structural violence and structural vulnerability within the risk environment: theoretical and methodological perspectives for a social epidemiology of HIV risk among injection drug users and sex workers. In: O'Campo P, Dunn JR, editors. , eds. Rethinking social epidemiology: towards a science of change. Springer: London, 2011.
18. Sarang A, Rhodes T, Sheon N, et al.
Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence. Subst Use Misuse
2010;45:813–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 19. Galea S, Hall C, Kaplan GA.
Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. Int J Drug Policy
2009;20:209–16. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 20. Strathdee SA, Hallett TB, Bobrova N, et al.
HIV and risk environment for injecting drug users: the past, present, and future. Lancet
2010;376:268–84. [PubMed] 21. Rhodes T, Ball A, Stimson GV, et al.
HIV infection associated with drug injecting in the Newly Independent States, eastern Europe: the social and economic context of epidemics. Addiction
1999;94:1323–36. [PubMed] 22. Bjerregaard P.
Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health
23. Durkheim E.
Suicide. London: Routledge, 2002.
24. McKee M, Leon DA.
Social transition and substance abuse
2005;100:1205–9. [PubMed] 25. Leon DA, Chenet L, Shkolnikov VM, et al.
Huge variation in Russian mortality rates 1984–94: artefact, alcohol, or what?
1997;350:383–8. [PubMed] 26. Barnett T, Whiteside A, Khodakevich L, et al.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ukraine: its potential social and economic impact. Soc Sci Med
2000;51:1387–403. [PubMed] 27. Rhodes T, Mikhailova L, Sarang A, et al.
Situational factors influencing drug injecting, risk reduction and syringe exchange in Togliatti City, Russian Federation: a qualitative study of micro risk environment. Soc Sci Med
2003;57:39–54. [PubMed] 28. Gupta GR, Parkhurst JO, Ogden JA, et al.
Structural approaches to HIV prevention. Lancet
2008;372:764–75. [PubMed] 29. Blankenship K, Friedman S, Dworkin S, et al.
Structural interventions: concepts, challenges and opportunities for research. J Urban Health
2006;83:59–72. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 30. Rhodes T, Simic M.
Transition and the HIV risk environment. BMJ
2005;331:220–3. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
31. World Health Organisation (WHO)
Policy and Programming Guide for HIV/ Aids Prevention and Care among Injecting Drug Users, 2005.
32. Degenhardt LMB, Vickerman P, Rhodes T, et al.
Prevention of HIV infection for people who inject drugs: why individual, structural, and combination approaches are needed. Lancet
2010;376:285–301. [PubMed] 33. World Health Organisation (WHO)
WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS Technical Guide for countries to set targets for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care for injecting drug users, 2009. [PubMed] 34. Beyrer C, Malinowska-Sempruch K, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
Time to act: a call for comprehensive responses to HIV in people who use drugs. Lancet
2010;376:551–63. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 35. Wood E, Werb D, Marshall BD, et al.
The war on drugs: a devastating public-policy disaster. Lancet
36. Joint United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS)
International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights: 2006 Consolidated Version, 2006.
37. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al.
The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. J Clin Epidemiol
38. Watters JK, Biernacki P.
Targeted sampling: options for the study of hidden populations. Soc Problems
39. Mathers BMDL, Ali H, Wiessing L, et al.
HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for people who inject drugs: a systematic review of global, regional, and national coverage. Lancet
2010;375:1014–28. [PubMed] 40. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) Statistical bulletin 2011. Secondary Statistical bulletin 2011. 2011. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/stats11 (accessed 18 Jan 2012)
41. World Health Organisation (WHO)
Adelaide recommendations on healthy public policy. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1988.
42. Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use.
Consensus Statement of the Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use.
43. International HIV/AIDS Alliance (Secretariat)
Enabling Legal Environments for Effective HIV Responses, 2010.
44. Tawil O, Verster A, O'Reilly KR.
Enabling approaches for HIV/AIDS prevention: can we modify the environment and minimize the risk?
45. International Harm Reduction Association
The Global State of Harm Reduction 2010: key issues for broadening the response. In: Cook C, editor. , 2010.
47. Uuskula A, Kals M, Rajaleid K, et al.
High-prevalence and high-estimated incidence of HIV infection among new injecting drug users in Estonia: need for large scale prevention programs. J Public Health
2008;30:119–25. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 48. Uuskula A, Jarlais DCD, Kals M, et al.
Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia. Bmc Public Health
2011;11. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 49. Kozlov AP, Shaboltas AV, Toussova OV, et al.
HIV incidence and factors associated with HIV acquisition among injection drug users in St Petersburg, Russia. AIDS
50. Smolskaya TT, Yakovleva AA, Kasumov VK, et al.
HIV Sentinel Surveillance in High-Risk Groups in Azerbaijan, Republic of Moldova and in the Russian Federation. Europe: World Health Organisation (WHO), 2004.
51. Booth REKC, Brewster JT, Sinitsyna L, et al.
Predictors of HIV sero-status among drug injectors at three Ukraine sites. AIDS
2006;20:2217–23. [PubMed] 52. Rhodes T, Platt L, Maximova S, et al.
Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis among injecting drug users in Russia: a multi-city study. Addiction
2006;101:252–66. [PubMed] 53. Sanchez JLTC, Bautista CT, Botros BA, et al.
High HIV prevalence and risk factors among injection drug users in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2003–2004. Drug Alcohol Depend
2006;82:S15–22. [PubMed] 54. Shapatava ENK, Tsertsvadze T, del Rio C.
Risk behaviors and HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C seroprevalence among injection drug users in Georgia. Drug Alcohol Depend
2006;82:S35–8. [PubMed] 55. Stvilia K, Tsertsvadze T, Sharvadze L, et al.
Prevalence of hepatitis C, HIV, and risk behaviors for blood-borne infections: a population-based survey of the adult population of T'bilisi, Republic of Georgia. J Urban Health
2006;83:289–98. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 56. Gyarmathy VA, Li N, Tobin KE, et al.
Unprotected sex in heterosexual partnerships of injecting drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia. AIDS Behav
2011;15:58–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 57. Taran YS, Johnston LG, Pohorila NB, et al.
Correlates of HIV Risk among injecting drug users in sixteen Ukrainian cities. AIDS Behav
58. Dershem L, Tabatadze M, Tsereteli N, et al.
Characteristics, high-risk behaviors and knowledge of STI/HIV/AIDS, and STI/HIV prevalence of facility-based female sex workers in Batumi, Georgia: 2004–2006. Report on two behavioral surveillance surveys with a biomarker component for the SHIP Project. (Tbilisi), Georgia: Save the Children, September, 2007.
59. Uuskula A, McNutt LA, Dehovitz J, et al.
High prevalence of blood-borne virus infections and high-risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Tallinn, Estonia. Int J STD AIDS
2007;18:41–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 60. Wilson TESA, Zilmer K, Kalikova N, et al.
The HIV prevention needs of injection drug users in Estonia. Int J STD AIDS
2007;18:389–91. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 61. Abdala N, Krasnoselskikh TV, Durante AJ, et al.
Sexually transmitted infections, sexual risk behaviors and the risk of heterosexual spread of HIV among and beyond IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. Eur Addict Res
2008;14:19–25. [PubMed] 62. Gambashidze N, Sikharulidze Z, Piralishvili G, et al.
Evaluation of pilot methadone maintenance therapy in Georgia (Caucuses). Georgian Med News
63. Inogamov ZI.
State of the HIV epidemic in the Republic of Uzbekistan Results of the SS in 2007: the results of sentinel surveillance of HIV infection among injecting drug users in 14 sentinel sites of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2007. Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2008.
64. Kuniholm MH, Aladashvili M, Rio CD, et al.
Not all injection drug users are created equal: heterogeneity of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infection in Georgia. Subst Use Misuse
2008;43:1424–37. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 65. Platt L, Rhodes T, Hickman M, et al.
Changes in HIV prevalence and risk among new injecting drug users in a Russian city of high HIV prevalence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;47:623–31. [PubMed] 66. Raj A, Cheng DM, Krupitsky EM, et al.
Correlates of any condom use among Russian narcology patients reporting recent unprotected sex. AIDS Behav
2008;13:310–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
67. SOCIS-CSPS IIHAAiU
Monitoring the behaviour of injecting drug users. Kyiv, Ukraine, 2008.
68. Todadze KLG.
Implementation of drug substitution therapy in Georgia. Cent Eur J Public Health
69. UNGASS ed. Country progress report: Republic of Armenia. 2008.
70. UNGASS ed. Republic of Belarus: National Report on the Implementation of the Declaration of Committment on HIV/AIDS. Minsk, Belarus, 2008.
71. Abel-Ollo K, Rahu M, Rajaleid K, et al.
Knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Estonia. AIDS Care
2009;21:851–7. [PubMed] 72. Beyrer C, Patel Z, Stachowiak JA, et al.
Characterization of the emerging HIV type 1 and HCV epidemics among injecting drug users in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
2009;25:853–60. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 73. Dumchev KV, Soldyshev R, Qian H-Z, et al.
HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among Hanka injection drug users in central Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey. Harm Reduct J
2009;6:23. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
74. Expanding Network for Comprehensive and Coordinated Action on HIV/AIDS prevention among IDUs and Bridging Population (ENCAP)
Prevalence of HIV and other infections and risk behaviour among Injecting Drug Users in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in 2007, 2009.
75. Gyarmathy VA, Li N, Tobin KE, et al.
Correlates of unsafe equipment sharing among injecting drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia. Eur Addict Res
2009;15:163–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
76. Kryukova V.
Overview of epidemiological situation & national response to HIV-infection epidemic in Central Asian countries. 4th Central Asian HIV Partnership Forum, 2009.
77. Niccolai LM, Shcherbakova IS, Toussova OV, et al.
The potential for bridging of HIV transmission in the Russian Federation: sex risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among drug users (DUs) and their non-DU sex partners. J Urban Health
2009;86(suppl 1):131–43. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
78. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Latvia. 2010.
79. Abdala NWE, Toussova OV, Krasnoselskikh TV, et al.
Comparing sexual risks and patterns of alcohol and drug use between injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who report sexual partnerships with IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. BMC Public Health
2010;10:676. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
80. Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation
Country Progress Report of the Russian Federation on the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Moscow, 2010.
81. Kechin EA.
Studies conducted within the National System for monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Belarus in 2009: a collection of articles. In: Kechin EA, editor.
Minsk: State Republican Center of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Public Health, 2010.
82. Pohorila N, Taran Y, Kolodiy I, et al.
Behavior monitoring and HIV-infection prevalence among injection drug users. Kyiv: ICF ‘International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine’, 2010.
83. Soliev A.
Analysis on epidemiological situation and responses based on second generation sentinel surveillance system among injecting drug users, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, 2006–2009, 2010.
84. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Republic of Armenia. 2010.
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Georgia, 2010.
86. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Estonia. 2010.
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Azerbaijan. 2010.
88. Uuskula A, McMahon JM, Raag M, et al.
Emergent properties of HIV risk among injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia: synthesis of individual and neighbourhood-level factors. (Special Issue: Epidemiology and prevention of STDs: the role of emergent properties and structural patterns.). Sex Transm Infect
2010;86(suppl 3):iii79–84. [PubMed]
89. Family Health International (FHI)
Albania—Behavioral and Biological Surveillance Study Report, 2006.
90. UNGASS, ed
National AIDS Program: UNGASS Country Progress Report: Albania. 2010.
Biological and behavioural survey among injection drug users. Bosnia and Herzegovina: UNICEF Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007.
92. Baćak V, Midžić D, Puhalo A, et al.
Report on behavioral and biological surveillance among injection drug users in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2009: a respondent driven sampling survey, 2009.
93. Vassilev ZP, Hagan H, Lyubenova A, et al.
Needle exchange use, sexual risk behaviour, and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among Bulgarian injection drug users. Int J STD AIDS
94. UNGASS, ed
Country Progress Report on Monitoring the Declaration of Committment on HIV/AIDS: Republic of Bulgaria. 2010.
95. Gjenero-Margan I, Kolari B.
Epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in Croatia—an overview. Coll Antropol
2006:11–16. [PubMed] 96. Begovac J, Zekan S, Skoko-Poljak D, et al.
Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Croatia—an epidemic that is still in an early stage. Antropol
97. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Republic of Croatia. 2010.
98. Bruckova MBC, Graham RR, Maly M, et al.
Short report: HIV infection among commercial sex workers and injecting drug users in the Czech Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg
2006;75:1017–20. [PubMed] 99. Gyarmathy AV, Neaigus A, Ujhelyi E.
Vulnerability to drug-related infections and co-infections among injecting drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Eur J Public Health
2009;19:260–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 100. Rácz J, Gyarmathy VA, Neaigus A, et al.
Injecting equipment sharing and perception of HIV and hepatitis risk among injecting drug users in Budapest. AIDS Care Psychol Socio-Med Aspects AIDS/HIV
2007;19:59–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
101. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Hungary. 2010.
102. Family Health International (FHI) I
Behavioural and Biological Survey Kosovo 2006, 2006.
103. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Republic of Macedonia. 2010.
104. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Montenegro. 2010.
105. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
HIV, HBV and HCV Behavioral Surveillance Survey among Injecting Drug Users in Bucharest, Romania. Bucharest, 2010.
106. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Republic of Serbia. 2010.
107. Judd A, Rhodes T, Johnston LG, et al.
Improving survey methods in sero-epidemiological studies of injecting drug users: a case example of two cross sectional surveys in Serbia and Montenegro. BMC Infect Dis
2009;9:14. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
108. UNGASS, ed
UNGASS Country Progress Report: Slovenia. Turkey, 2010.
109. ICON Institute for Public Health
Operational Research on key STIs and HIV in Turkey. Ankara, Turkey, 2007.
110. Gyarmathy VA, Neaigus A, Li N, et al.
Liquid drugs and high dead space syringes may keep HIV and HCV prevalence high—a comparison of Hungary and Lithuania. Eur Addict Res
2010;16:220–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 111. Chikovani I, Bozicevic I, Goguadze K, et al.
Unsafe injection and sexual risk behavior among injecting drug users in Georgia. J Urban Health-Bulletin NY Acad Med
2011;88:736–48. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
112. Scutelniciuc O, Ilinschi E.
Assessment of Risk of HIV infection among Most at Risk Adolescents. Chisinau: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Center of Health Management Monitoring and Evaluation of National Health Programmes, National Drug Observatory, 2009.
113. Platt L, Bobrova N, Rhodes T, et al.
High HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in Estonia: implications for understanding the risk environment. AIDS
2006;20:2120–3. [PubMed] 114. Gyarmathy V, Neaigus A.
Marginalized and socially integrated groups of IDUs in Hungary: potential bridges of HIV infection. J Urban Health
2005;82:iv101–12. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 115. Márványkövi F, Melles K, Rácz J.
Sex and drugs: the correlations of injecting drug users’ risk perception and behavioral patterns. Subst Use Misuse
2009;44:569–77. [PubMed] 116. Colfax G, Santos G-M, Chu P, et al.
Amphetamine-group substances and HIV. Lancet
2010;376:458–74. [PubMed] 117. Griffiths P, Mravcik V, Lopez D, et al.
Quite a lot of smoke but very limited fire—the use of methamphetamine in Europe. Drug Alcohol Rev
118. Grund J-P, Zabransky T, Irvin K, et al.
Stimulant use in central and eastern Europe: how recent social history shaped current drug consumption patterns. In: Pates R, Riley D, editors. , eds. Interventions for amphetamine misuse. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2009.
119. Booth R, Dvoryak S, Anderson C, et al.
Police brutality is independently associated with sharing injection equipment among injection drug users in Odessa, Ukraine. XVIII International AIDS Conference; Vienna,
120. Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, et al.
The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors’ ability to practice harm reduction: A qualitative study. Soc Sci Med
2005;61:673–84. [PubMed] 121. Niccolai LM, Toussova OV, Verevochkin SV, et al.
High HIV prevalence, suboptimal HIV testing, and low knowledge of HIV-positive serostatus among injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia.
2010;14:932–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
122. Des Jarlais DC, Grund J-P, Zadoretzky C, et al.
HIV risk behaviour among participants of syringe exchange programmes in central/eastern Europe and Russia. Int J Drug Policy
123. Stachowiak JATF, Strathdee SA, Stibich MA, et al.
Marked ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 2004. Drug Alcohol Depend
2006;82:S7–14. [PubMed] 124. Robbins CL, Zapata L, Kissin DM, et al.
Multicity HIV seroprevalence in street youth, Ukraine. Int J STD AIDS
2010;21:489–96. [PubMed] 125. Platt L, Rhodes T, Lowndes CM, et al.
Impact of gender and sex work on sexual and injecting risk behaviors and their association with HIV positivity among injecting drug users in an HIV epidemic in Togliatti City, Russian Federation. Sex Trans Dis
2005;32:605–12. [PubMed] 126. Platt L, Rhodes T, Judd A, et al.
Effects of sex work on the prevalence of syphilis among injection drug users in 3 Russian cities. Am J Public Health
127. Uusküla A, Des Jarlais D, Kals M, et al.
Outcomes of large-scale syringe exchange in Tallinn, Estonia. XVIII International AIDS Conference
Vienna, Austria, 2010.
128. Platt L, Rhodes T, Hickman M, et al.
Changes in HIV prevalence and risk among new injecting drug users in a Russian City of high HIV prevalence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
2008;47:623–31. [PubMed] 129. Wiessing L, Likatavicius G, Klempova D, et al.
Associations between availability and coverage of HIV-prevention measures and subsequent incidence of diagnosed HIV infection among injection drug users. Am J Public Health
2009;99:1049–52. [PubMed] 130. Vickerman P, Hickman M, Rhodes T, et al.
Model projections on the required coverage of syringe distribution to prevent HIV epidemics among injecting drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
2006;42:355–61. [PubMed] 131. Heimer R.
Community coverage and HIV prevention: assessing metrics for estimating HIV incidence through syringe exchange. Int J Drug Policy
2008;19(suppl 1):65–73. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 132. Sarang A, Rhodes T, Platt L.
Access to syringes in three Russian cities: implications for syringe distribution and coverage. Int J Drug Policy
2008;19(suppl 1):25–36. [PubMed]
133. Presidential Decree
State Anti-Drug Policy Strategy of the Russian Federation in the Period until 2020, 2010.
134. Varban M, Dovbakh A, Maksymenko K.
Violence of sexual partner as a vulnerability factor of female IDU to HIV infection. XVIII International AIDS Conference; Vienna,
135. Wall M, Schmidt E, Sarang A, et al.
Sex, drugs and economic behaviour in Russia: a study of socio-economic characteristics of high risk populations. Int J Drug Policy
136. Rhodes T, Sarang A, Simic M.
Police violence and ‘fear-based policy’ as barriers to HIV prevention: qualitative case studies in Russia and Serbia. XVIII International AIDS Conference; Vienna,
137. Rhodes T, Prodanovic A, Zikic B, et al.
Trust, disruption and responsibility in accounts of injecting equipment sharing and hepatitis C risk. Health Risk Soc
138. Burris S, Blankenship KM, Donoghoe M, et al.
Addressing the ‘risk environment’ for injection drug users: the mysterious case of the missing cop. Milbank Q
2004;82:125–56. [PubMed] 139. Dolan K, Kite B, Black E, et al.
HIV in prison in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Infect Dis
2007;7:32–41. [PubMed] 140. Jürgens R, Ball A, Verster A.
Interventions to reduce HIV transmission related to injecting drug use in prison. Lancet Infect Dis
141. Des Jarlais DC, Bramson H, Wong C, et al.
Meta-analysis of the international literature on racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among IDUs: first results. XVIII International AIDS Conference; Vienna,
142. Ursan M, Bocai A, Iliuta C, et al.
Harm reduction initiative for roma injecting drug users. International Harm Reduction Conference; Bangkok, 2009.
143. Bobrova N, Rhodes T, Power R, et al.
Barriers to accessing drug treatment in Russia: a qualitative study among injecting drug users in two cities. Drug Alcohol Depend
2006;82:S57–63. [PubMed] 144. Wagner KD, Davidson PJ, Pollini RA, et al.
Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations. Int J Drug Policy
2012;23:54–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 145. Beyrer C, Razak MH, Lisam K, et al.
Overland heroin trafficking routes and HIV-1 spread in south and south-east Asia. AIDS
146. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
World Drug Report 2010. Sales No. E.10.XI.13 ed: United Nations Publication, 2010.
147. Tumanov T, Asadulovev K, Chariev N.
Analysis of epidemiological situation and response measures based on the data from second generation system sentinel surveillance among injecting drug users in the Republic of Tajikistan in 2009. Dushanbe, 2010.
148. Ismailova A.
Epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection in Kyrgyz Republic. 2009.
149. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Regional Office for Central Asia
Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia, 2008.
150. Rhodes T.
Risk environments and drug harms: a social science for harm reduction approach. Int J Drug Policy
2009;20:193–201. [PubMed] 151. Van Den Berg C, Smit C, Van Brussel G, et al.
Full participation in harm reduction programmes is associated with decreased risk for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus: evidence from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users. Addiction
2007;102:1454–62. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
152. Grund J-P, Coffin P, Jauffret-Roustide M, et al.
The fast and furious—cocaine, amphetamines and harm reduction. In: Rhodes T, Hedrich D, editors. , eds. Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010:191–232.
153. Rhodes T, Hedrich D.
Harm reduction and the mainstream. In: Rhodes T, Hedrich D, editors. , eds. Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010:462.
154. Kimber J, Palmateer N, Hutchinson S, et al.
Harm reduction among injecting drug users—evidence of effectiveness. In: Rhodes T, Hedrich D, editors. , eds. Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010:462.
155. Palmateer N, Kimber J, Hickman M, et al.
Evidence for the effectiveness of sterile injecting equipment provision in preventing hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus transmission among injecting drug users: a review of reviews. Addiction
156. Greenwald G.
Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies: The Cato Institute, 2009.
157. Jürgens R.
‘Nothing about us without us’ — Greater, meaningful involvement of people who use illegal drugs: A public health, ethical, and human rights imperative, International edition. Toronto: Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Open Society Institute, 2008.
158. European Union (EU)
EU Drugs Strategy (2005–2012). In: Secretariat G, editor.
Practical guidelines for intensifying HIV prevention: towards universal access. Geneva: UNAIDS, 2007.
Guidelines for Second Generation HIV Surveillance: The Next Decade. Geneva, Switzerland, 2000:48.
161. Tilson H, Aramrattana A, Bozzette S.
Preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users in high-risk countries: an assessment of the evidence. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, 2007.
162. Williams AB, McNelly EA, Williams AE, et al.
Methadone maintenance treatment and HIV type 1 seroconversion among injecting drug users. AIDS Care Psychol Socio-Med Aspects AIDS/HIV
1992;4:35–41. [PubMed] 163. Metzger DS.
Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion among intravenous drug users in- and out-of-treatment : an 18-month prospective follow-up. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
1993;6:1049–56. [PubMed] 164. Moss AR, Vranizan K, Gorter R, et al.
HIV seroconversion in intravenous drug users in San Francisco, 1985–1990. AIDS
1994;8:223–32. [PubMed] 165. Hartel DM, Schoenbaum EE.
Methadone treatment protects against HIV infection: two decades of experience in the Bronx, New York City. Public Health Reports (Washington, DC: 1974)
1998;113(suppl 1):107–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 166. Serpelloni G, Carrieri MP, Rezza G, et al.
Methadone treatment as a determinant of HIV risk reduction among injecting drug users: a nested case-control study. AIDS Care: Psychol Socio-Med Aspects AIDS/HIV
1994;6:215–20. [PubMed] 167. Novick DM, Joseph H, Scott Croxson T, et al.
Absence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in long-term, socially rehabilitated methadone maintenance patients. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1990. [PubMed] 168. Rhoades HM, Creson D, Elk R, et al.
Retention, HIV risk, and illicit drug use during treatment: methadone dose and visit frequency. Am J Public Health
169. World Health Organisation (WHO) UNOoDaCU, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
Interventions to Address HIV in Prisons: HIV Care, Treatment and support. Evidence for Action Technical Papers, 2007.
170. Larisa P.
Drug Users, HIV-positive Prisoners. Examples of adequate influence over changes in national policy on harm reduction programs in Moldovan prisons. XVIII International AIDS Conference; Vienna,