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Logo of bmcecoBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Ecology
 
BMC Ecol. 2012; 12: 6.
Published online May 24, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1472-6785-12-6
PMCID: PMC3488015
Adaptive and variable intraguild predators facilitate local coexistence in an intraguild predation module
San-He Wu1 and Toshinori Okuyamacorresponding author1
1Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
San-He Wu: trileica/at/gmail.com; Toshinori Okuyama: okuyama/at/ntu.edu.tw
Received February 13, 2012; Accepted May 2, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Intraguild predation (IGP) is common in nature, but its ecological role is still illusive. A number of studies have investigated a three species IGP module that consists of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and resource species in which the intraguild predator and the intraguild prey exploitatively compete for the resource while the intraguild predator also consumes the intraguild prey. A common prediction of models of the IGP module is that the coexistence of the species is difficult, which is considered inconsistent to the ubiquity of IGP in nature. This study revisits the IGP module and provides an alternative coexistence mechanism by focusing on a commonly used analysis method (i.e., invasion analysis) in light of individual variation in adaptive behavior.
Results
Invasion analysis underestimates the possibility of coexistence regardless of the presence or absence of adaptive behavior. Coexistence is possible even when invasion analysis predicts otherwise. The underestimation by invasion analysis is pronounced when the intraguild predator forages adaptively, which is even further pronounced when the expression of foraging behavior is variable among intraguild predators.
Conclusions
The possibility of coexistence in the IGP module is greater than previously thought, which may have been partly due to how models were analyzed. Inconsistent conclusions may result from the same model depending on how the model is analyzed. Individual variation in adaptive behavior can be an important factor promoting the coexistence of species in IGP modules.
Keywords: Invasion analysis, Stability analysis, Behavioral variation, Coexistence, Omnivory
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