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Logo of bmcpsBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Plant Biology
 
BMC Plant Biol. 2012; 12: 65.
Published online May 8, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2229-12-65
PMCID: PMC3487962
Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses
Chuan Li,1,2 Heidi Rudi,2 Eric J Stockinger,3 Hongmei Cheng,4 Moju Cao,corresponding author1 Samuel E Fox,5 Todd C Mockler,6 Bjørge Westereng,7 Siri Fjellheim,2 Odd Arne Rognli,2 and Simen R Sandvecorresponding author2
1Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan, China
2Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, ÅS, Norway
3Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University/OARDC, Wooster, OH, 44691, USA
4Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China
5Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
6Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO, 63132, USA
7Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Chuan Li: lichuan172/at/163.com; Heidi Rudi: heidi.rudi/at/umb.no; Eric J Stockinger: stockinger.4/at/osu.edu; Hongmei Cheng: chenghm/at/caas.net.cn; Moju Cao: mojupp/at/163.com; Samuel E Fox: foxsa/at/onid.orst.edu; Todd C Mockler: tmockler/at/danforthcenter.org; Bjørge Westereng: bjorge.westereng/at/umb.no; Siri Fjellheim: siri.fjellheim/at/umb.no; Odd Arne Rognli: odd-arne.rognli/at/umb.no; Simen R Sandve: simen.sandve/at/umb.no
Received December 23, 2011; Accepted April 27, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP) genes, fructosyltransferase (FST) genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses.
Results
Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species.
Conclusions
We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.
Keywords: Brachypodium distachyon, Cold climate adaptation, Ice recrystallization inhibition protein, Gene expression, Fructosyltransferase, C-repeat binding factor, Gene family evolution
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