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Logo of bmcpediBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Pediatrics
 
BMC Pediatr. 2012; 12: 164.
Published online Oct 17, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2431-12-164
PMCID: PMC3480864
The influence of a formula supplemented with dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in healthy full-term infants: a double-blind randomized controlled trial
Maria Lorella Giannì,corresponding author1 Paola Roggero,1 Charlotte Baudry,2 Amandine Ligneul,2 Daniela Morniroli,1 Francesca Garbarino,1 Pascale le Ruyet,2 and Fabio Mosca1
1Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Department of Clinical Science and Comunity Health, Fondazione IRCCS “Ca’ Granda” Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
2Lactalis Recherche et Développement, 8 Fromy - CS 60082, 35240, Retiers, France
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Maria Lorella Giannì: maria.gianni/at/unimi.it; Paola Roggero: paola.roggero/at/unimi.it; Charlotte Baudry: charlotte.baudry/at/lactalis.fr; Amandine Ligneul: Amandine.ligneul/at/lactalis.fr; Daniela Morniroli: daniela.morniroli/at/gmail.com; Francesca Garbarino: francesca.garbarino/at/hotmail.it; Pascale le Ruyet: pascale.leruyet/at/lactalis.fr; Fabio Mosca: fabio.mosca/at/unimi.it
Received August 10, 2012; Accepted October 11, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Human milk is the optimal nutrition for infants. When breastfeeding is not possible, supplementation of infant formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids appears to promote neurodevelopmental outcome and visual function. Plant oils, that are the only source of fat in most of infant formulas, do not contain specific fatty acids that are present in human and cow milk and do not encounter milk fat triglyceride structure. Experimental data suggest that a mix of dairy lipids and plant oils can potentiate endogenous synthesis of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. This trial aims to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils on the erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile in full-term infants (primary outcome). Erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level, the gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes throughout the study in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition are evaluated as secondary outcomes.
Methods/Design
In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, 75 healthy full-term infants are randomly allocated to receive for four months a formula supplemented with a mixture of dairy lipids and plant oils or a formula containing only plant oils or a formula containing plant oils supplemented with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Twenty-five breast-fed infants constitute the reference group. Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the other fatty acids content, the plasma lipid profile and the insulin-growth factor 1 level are measured after four months of intervention. Gastrointestinal tolerance, the changes in blood fatty acids content, in growth and body composition, assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system, are also evaluated throughout the study.
Discussion
The achievement of an appropriate long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids status represents an important goal in neonatal nutrition. Gaining further insight in the effects of the supplementation of a formula with dairy lipids and plant oils in healthy full-term infants could help to produce a formula whose fat content, composition and structure is more similar to human milk.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01611649
Keywords: Full-term infants, Formula supplementation, Dairy lipids, Erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid profile
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