This study indicates that there is an association between certain risk factors and SCM in lactating cows of the Savannah region of Nigeria. Broadly, certain animal characteristics and poor husbandry management practices contributed to increased prevalence of SCM. While this study has certain limitations, such as non-independent sampling and spatial auto-correlation, an effort was made to ensure geographical spread and adequate representation of cow herds and farm types that exist in Sokoto State. The overall majority (over 90%) of the herds in Sokoto are semi-intensive or extensive herds. The purely extensive herds were not particularly selected in this study because lactating cows are usually resident under the semi-intensive system while other cows are taken out to pastures. We believe this sampled population represents the available herds in the region.
While we are aware that the testing system is somewhat subjective and may incorporate some misclassification/overestimation bias, we made all effort to reduce any bias by: a) allowing three technicians to conduct some preliminary tests on known samples and testing the kappa statistics for strength of agreement between the individual scores of the three testers (Kappa
0.70 (0.40-0.99 at CI95%
); b) usage of pasteurized milk samples as gold standard for negative test; c) carrying out random bacteria culture and analyses of selected milk sample to match them with the CMT scores [16
]; and d) we are aware that convenient sampling of herds which was done may bias the outcomes of our investigation, however it is difficult to randomize the herds in view of frequent movement and change of locations most of this herds were subjected to. Finally, the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of the kit were adhered to in carrying out the test. Bias in body condition scoring was reduced by using the same standard (modification of ELANCO-Kellogg’s pictoral chart) in scoring all animals [17
]. Interviewers’ and courtesy biases were reduced by allowing the farmers to give free opinions on all issues and by asking certain check questions in addition to questions needed to collect the required parameters.
An overall quarter-level prevalence of 43.25% of SCM was observed, based on CMT scores, and but the LFQ were more affected than the other quarters (Table ). Though an immediate explanation cannot be established for this observation, it is highly likely that in the process of milking, these particular quarters were milked first before the other quarters because most of the operators tend to be right handed and sit first to the left of the animals. It is also possible that contaminations from the operators left hands, which are used for less hygienic purposes (sometimes without proper washing and disinfection), and which are most often used to milk the LFQ and the RHQ (based on sitting position) contributed to the higher incidence observed in these two quarters. At the herd-level, the prevalence was 85.33%. This value is higher that those obtained previously in Tanzania (43.25%), [18
]. The fact that the prevalence of SCM was higher in a single quarter (32.33%) and reduced as more quarters are affected (30.33%, 16.00% and 6.67% in 2, 3 and 4 quarters respectively) is an indication that possibly, one quarter is usually first infected and the others become affected through contamination and other means especially during the milking procedures.
Among the breeds, the Rahaji and Sokoto Gudali were more frequently affected with documented prevalence of 65.91% and 45.67%, respectively (Table ). The reason for the breed differences is not clear although these more affected breeds were primarily beef cattle, while Holstein-Friesian and White Fulani are better “milkers” and are preferentially selected by dairy farmers in Nigeria. It is also possible that environmental selection has caused some breeds to better adapt to a less hygienic environment, the main source of teat contamination and SCM. Such adaptations may include narrower teat canal or firmer sphincters at the tip of teats. The results from the multivariable model support this suggestion. Future research may critically evaluate breed differences to understand their individual contributions to SCM.
A statistical association was found between the four risk factors, age (in years), washing of hands before milking, breed of a cow, and different mammary quarters. Younger cows were less likely to be afflicted with SCM. This could be explained by the fact that the teat canal in older animals is more dilated or it remains partially open permanently due to years of repeated milking. This encourages the introduction of environmental and skin-associated microorganisms into the teat canal, leading to SCM and milk production losses. Schroeder had previously stated that milk production losses are nearly double for older cows than in first lactation cows [19
Cows in herds where hand-washing before milking is being frequently practiced had a reduced risk of developing SCM compared to herds with less hygienic milking practices. Certain infectious organisms are normal residents of human hands and these microbes could be transmitted to uninfected animals and quarters during milking. The importance of thorough teat and hand washing before milking cannot be overemphasized in view of this finding. Where feasible, the use of hand gloves during milking should be encouraged. This has similarly been established in past reports [1
]. Our survey found that approximately 37.33% of the farmers do not wash their hands before milking, and the value of hand washing is an important message that extension veterinarians can pass along to farmers to reduce the risk of SCM.
The level of SCM in lactating cows in this study is comparable or higher than those obtained elsewhere in Africa (Tanzania
]), and it is indicative of poor management of animals and a heavily contaminated milking environment. Though this study is based only on the qualitative test of CMT, we believed that there is a need to conduct laboratory evaluations and establish the pathogens that may be involved in this observation. Such microbes may include Escherichia coli
and Streptococcus uberis
amongst others. There may also be a need to conduct broader studies, taking into account regional and socio-cultural differences, to determine the effect of other potential risk factors not included in this study, such as season and geographical location of herds.