The pattern of measles vaccination coverage was examined descriptively for increasing levels of paternal education, within each level of maternal education (Table ).
Measles vaccination coverage by paternal education, within maternal education groups
In India when both parents had no education, the proportion of children who were vaccinated for measles was 33.9%, and this increased to 43.9% even when the mother had no education, but the father had Secondary schooling and above. Similarly, for Indonesia when both parents had primary schooling, 55.1% of children were vaccinated, increasing to 75.6% when the mother had primary schooling, but father’s education was Secondary schooling and above. For Nigeria, when both parents had no education, 15.8% of children were vaccinated, and this figure nearly doubled when the father had secondary schooling, but the mother had no education.
In Table the significance of differences in measles vaccination coverage between paternal education categories is tested, while controlling for maternal education level.
A striking finding was that, in all six countries studied, the proportion of children who were vaccinated for measles increased as father’s education increased, regardless of mother’s education levels. When both parents had no education, children were significantly less likely to be immunised against measles (p-value
The most conclusive results were under the following two scenarios. First, when maternal education is primary or secondary schooling, the proportion of children receiving measles immunisation was significantly higher when paternal education is secondary or higher (p-value
0.05). Second, when maternal education was primary and paternal education is no education or primary, the proportion of children not
receiving measles vaccination was significantly higher (p-value
0.05). This was also seen when maternal education level was secondary and paternal education as primary (p-value
0.05). These findings confirm paternal education status as an independent correlate of measles immunisation coverage.
To investigate the combined influence of these factors, the change in measles vaccination coverage with increasing paternal education within a particular maternal education level was analysed. The correlation between maternal and paternal education levels and measles vaccination was established in the logistic regression analysis. Table presents the results of a logistic regression analysis. These results show the estimated likelihood of the child being vaccinated for measles separately for each country and for disaggregated samples for different levels of maternal education. Specifically, we estimated a series of logistic regression models for each of our six countries, separately for the full sample; sample where the mothers had no schooling; sample where the mothers had only primary schooling; and sample where the mothers had secondary and higher levels of schooling. Variables including household wealth, rural/urban residence, dummy variables for province of residence, occupations of mother and father and child’s religion were included in all regressions.
Table , summarises the coefficients for paternal education within different levels of maternal education. The coefficients presented in Table are for the influence of father’s education
After controlling for the influence of all other potentially confounding variables, when considered separately, a significant finding of this study is the robust statistically significant finding of the important role of father’s education in influencing the likelihood of a child’s measles vaccination. For the six countries analysed in the sample, there is a large, statistically significant, and positive correlation between measles vaccination and father having secondary or higher levels of education, within each level of maternal education. It is noteworthy, that holding all other factors constant in all the six countries, even when the mother has no education, having a father with secondary schooling or higher levels of education is significantly and positively correlated with a higher likelihood of the child being vaccinated for measles (p-value <0.01).