Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjoBMJ OpenVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
BMJ Open. 2012; 2(5): e001357.
Published online 2012 September 26. doi:  10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001357
PMCID: PMC3467605

Preventing renal and cardiovascular risk by renal function assessment: insights from a cross-sectional study in low-income countries and the USA



To assess the prevalence of microalbuminuria and kidney dysfunction in low-income countries and in the USA.


Cross-sectional study of screening programmes in five countries.


Screening programmes in Nepal, Bolivia, the USA (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008) Bangladesh and Georgia.


General population in Nepal (n=20 811), Bolivia (n=3436) and in the USA (n=4299) and high-risk subjects in Bangladesh (n=1518) and Georgia (n=1549).

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60ml/min/1.73 m2 and microalbuminuria (defined as urinary albumin creatinine ratio values of 30–300 mg/g) were the main outcome measures. The cardiovascular (CV) risk was also evaluated on the basis of demographic, clinical and blood data.


The prevalence of eGFR<60ml/min/1.73 m2 was 19%, 3.2% and 7% in Nepal, Bolivia and the USA, respectively. In Nepal, 7% of subjects were microalbuminuric compared to 8.6% in the USA. The prevalence of participants with predicted 10-year CV disease (CVD) risk ≥10% was 16.9%, 9.4% and 17% in Nepal, Bolivia and in the USA, respectively. In Bangladesh and Georgia, subjects with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were 8.6% and 4.9%, whereas those with microalbuminuria were 45.4% and 56.5%, respectively. Predicted 10-year CVD risk ≥10% was 25.4% and 25% in Bangladesh and Georgia, respectively.


Renal abnormalities are common among low-income countries and in the USA. Prevention programmes, particularly focused on those with renal abnormalities, should be established worldwide to prevent CVD and progression to end-stage renal disease.

Articles from BMJ Open are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group