Infectious diseases constitute the leading cause of premature deaths in the world and kill almost 50,000 people every day. An increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria is threatening world population with the recurrence of infectious diseases that were once thought to be under control at least in developed countries. In the recent years incidence of multi-drug resistance in Gram-positive, Gram-negative and other bacteria like Mycobacterium tuberculosis
has been reported from all over the world [1
]. These multi-drug resistant bacteria have also created additional problems in cancer and AIDS patients.
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) has gained much attention in the last decade, as the MRSA is a major cause of hospital acquired (nosoconical infections) β-lactam antibiotics are the preferred drugs against Staphylococcus aureus
has developed resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics due to the production of chromosomal or plasmid mediated β-lactamases [2
]. Moreover, increase incidence of vancomycin-resistant has also been reported [3
]. Thus, the number of effective exogenous antibiotics is decreasing; therefore concerted efforts are to be made to identify antimicrobial materials from natural products and traditional medicines.
In effect, different extracts from traditional medicinal plants have been tested to identify the sources of the therapeutics effect [4
]. Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased interest in the development of resistance of pathogens against antibiotics caused by the indiscriminate use of modern antibiotics [5
]. As a result some natural products have been approved as new antibacterial drugs but there is still an urgent need to identify novel substances that are active towards pathogens with high resistance [7
]. Considering the high cost of the synthetic drugs and their side effects, wide varieties of natural plants can be considered as a vital source for anti-microbial agents [8
Therefore, the need of new and effective anti-microbial agents with broad-spectrum of activity from natural sources is increasing day by day [9
]. In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine therefore, plants still make an important contribution to health care. This is due in part to the recognition of the value of traditional medical systems and the identification of medicinal plants from indigenous pharmacopoeias which have significant healing power [10
]. In addition, natural plant products, accordingly provide a contimal inspiration of bioactive antimicrobial agents with low toxicity, a broad spectrum and good pharmacokinetics to be clinically used without chemical modification [11
]. So, such plants should be investigated to better understand their therapeutic properties, safety and efficiency [12
Herbal medicine has become an ideal remedy for treatment of the diseases due to lesser amount of side effects, better compatibility and only accessible treatment for some diseases [13
]. In the continuous search for active phytochemicals against pathogenic infectious Cienfuegosia digitata
Cav. (Malvaceae) an herbaceous, has received considerable attention. This plant is a savannah herbaceous belonging to the family of Malvaceae and is abundantly distributed in the central and north of in Burkina Faso. Medicinally, it is used to heal the infectious wounds, to cure the cough, throat complaints, dysentery and others infectious diseases in children: diarrhoea, acute colitis, malaria, fever, pain, variola. In addition, this plant has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hepatoprotective properties [14
]. In previous study, the aqueous acetone extract from this herbaceous was evaluated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities [15
] due to its composition in saponosides, coumarins, steroids, polyphenol, alkaloid compounds [14
]. However, no systematic study has been reported concerning antibacterial activity of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata
Cav. This plant has not exhaustively been screened for antimicrobial activity.
Hence, the present study was conducted to study out the antibacterial of alkaloid compounds from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., against the locally isolated microorganisms from patients having infectious diseases. The bacteriostatic, bactericidal, time-kill assay and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index studies of the alkaloid compounds were screened against clinical strains of bacteria with an aim of manufacturing some drugs like alkaloid compounds or a combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs to better manage resistant bacteria infectious diseases.